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Standards for the lesson plan
Data and Probability: Marshmallow Madness

These standards and benchmarks are from McREL's online database, Content Knowledge: A Compendium of Standards and Benchmarks for K-12 education (4th edition, 2004) (http://www.mcrel.org/standards-benchmarks/.) The mathematics portion of the database was developed using National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) standards in addition to other nationally recognized standards documents.

Standard 1: Uses a variety of strategies in the problem-solving process
Grades 6-8

Benchmark 2: Uses a variety of strategies to understand problem-solving situations and processes (for example, considers different strategies and approaches to a problem, restates problem from various perspectives)

Benchmark 4: Formulates a problem, determines information required to solve the problem, chooses methods for obtaining this information, and sets limits for acceptable solutions

Benchmark 6: Generalizes from a pattern of observations made in particular cases, makes conjectures, and provides supporting arguments for these conjectures (i.e., uses inductive reasoning)

Benchmark 9: Uses a variety of reasoning processes (for example, reasoning from a counter example, using proportionality) to model and to solve problems

Standard 7: Understands and applies basic and advanced concepts of probability
Grades 6-8

Benchmark 2: Determines probability using simulations or experiments

Standard 6: Understands and applies basic and advanced concepts of statistics and data analysis
Grades 3-5

Benchmark 1: Understands that data represent specific pieces of information about real-world objects or activities

Benchmark 4: Organizes and displays data in simple bar graphs, pie charts, and line graphs

Grades 6-8

Benchmark 4: Reads and interprets data in charts, tables, and plots (for example, stem-and-leaf, box-and-whiskers, scatter)

Benchmark 6: Organizes and displays data using tables, graphs, (for example, line, circle, bar), frequency distributions, and plots (for example, stem-and-leaf, box-and-whiskers, scatter)

Standard 9: Understands the general nature and uses of mathematics
Grades 3-6

Benchmark 2: Understands that mathematical ideas and concepts can be represented concretely, graphically, and symbolically

Grades 6-8

Benchmark 2: Understands that mathematics often represents real things using abstract ideas like numbers or lines; they then work with these abstractions to learn about the things they represent