How effective is it?
Published Reports, Evaluation Studies, and Summary of Effectiveness:
The Strategic Instruction Model has been extensively researched. The following references were provided by the Center for Research on Learning as representative support for using SIM with struggling secondary readers. Additional documentation can be found at the Center's website: http://www.ku-crl.org/sim/ Enhancement
Bulgren, J. A., Deshler, D. D., & Schumaker, J. B. (1997). Use of a recall enhancement routine and strategies in inclusive secondary classes. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 12(4), 198-208.
A multiple-baseline design study is used with teachers to determine the effects of training on their performance of the Recall Enhancement Routine and a post-test only comparison design is employed to determine the effects of teacher use of the routine on student use of mnemonic devices.
Bulgren, J. A., Schumaker, J. B., & Deshler, D. D. (1988). Effectiveness of a concept teaching routine in enhancing the performance of LD students in secondary-level mainstream classes. Learning Disability Quarterly, 11(1), 3-17.
Multiple-baseline studies with a wide array of variables are used to measure teacher effectiveness with Concept Diagrams and the Concept Teaching Routine in heterogeneous general education classrooms and their effect on students (with and without LD) using several classroom performance indicators.
Lenz, B. K., Bulgren, J. A., & Hudson, P. (1990). Content enhancement: A model for promoting the acquisition of content by individuals with learning disabilities. In T. E. Scruggs & B. L. Y. Wong (Eds.), Intervention research in learning disabilities (pp. 122-165). NY: Springer-Verlag.
This book chapter discusses information processing and pedagogy for students with learning disabilities, including suggestions for teacher planning and teaching routines such as the Chapter Survey Routine, Concept Teaching Routine, and Assignment Completion Routine.
Schumaker, J. B., Deshler, D. D., & McKnight, P. C. (1991). Teaching routines for content areas at the secondary level. In G. Stover, M. R. Shinn, & H. M. Walker (Eds.), Interventions for Achievement and Behavior Problems (pp. 473-494). Washington, DC: National Association of School Psychologists.
This book chapter reviews research including (a) learning inefficiencies or disabilities inherent in the student, (b) complex curricular and setting demands in secondary schools, and (c) ineffective teaching practices.
Bulgren, J. A., Hock, M.F., Schumaker, J. B., & Deshler, D. D. (1995). The effects of instruction in a paired associates strategy on the information mastery performance of students with learning disabilities. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 10(1), 22-37.
High school students in this multiple baseline across student design study were taught the Paired Associates Strategy for 20-30 minutes per day for 6 months.
Clark, F. L., Deshler, D. D., Schumaker, J. B., Alley, G. R., & Warner, M. M. (1984). Visual imagery and
self-questioning: Strategies to improve comprehension of written material. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 17(3), 145-149.
Two learning strategies, Visual Imagery and Self-Questioning, designed to increase reading comprehension were taught to six learning disabled students using a multiple baseline across strategies design on several outcome measures.
Deshler, D. D., & Lenz, B. K. (1989). The strategies instructional approach. International Journal of Disability, Development and Education, 36(3), 203-224.
This article describes how researchers have developed the Strategic Intervention Model to promote, model, guide, and prompt efficient and effective learning and performance across all settings for all students, not just those with learning disabilities.
Deshler, D. D., & Schumaker, J. B. (1988). An instructional model for teaching students how to learn. In J. L. Graden, J. E. Zins, and M. J. Curtis (Eds.), Alternative educational delivery systems: Enhancing instructional options for all students. Washington, DC: NASP, 391-411.
The Strategies Intervention Model is described from several dimensions: evolution and overview, key components, teachers' roles, students' roles, and the external support sources.
Lenz, B. K., & Hughes, C. A. (1990). A word identification strategy for adolescents with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 23(3), 149-158, 163.
A multiple-baseline across subjects design was implemented using five measures on the Word Identification Strategy (DISSECT) with adolescents who are LD.
McNaughton, D., Hughes, C., & Ofiesh, N. (1997). Proofreading for students with learning disabilities: Integrating computer and strategy use. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 12(1), 16-28.
A multiple-probe across subjects design is used to investigate the impact of an integrated proofreading strategy training combining the use of a computer-based spelling checker and a learning strategy (InSPECT Strategy) on the proofreading performance of students with LD.
Oas, B. K., Schumaker, J. A., & Deshler, D. D. (1995). Learning strategies: Tools for learning to learn in middle and high schools. Secondary education and beyond: Providing opportunities for students with learning disabilities. Pittsburgh, PA: Learning Disabilities Association of America.
Student case descriptions are used to illustrate how a variety of learning strategies might be implemented with students who experience an array of learning disabilities characteristics (Self-Advocacy Strategy, Sentence Writing Strategy, The PROJECT Strategy, Paraphrasing Strategy, etc.)
Schumaker, J. B., & Deshler, D. D. (1992). Validation of learning strategy interventions for students with learning disabilities: Results of a programmatic research effort. In B. Y. L. Wong (Ed.), Contemporary Intervention Research in Learning Disabilities: An International Perspective (pp. 22-46). New York: Springer-Verlag.
The purpose of this chapter is to discuss some of the key features surrounding the research conducted on learning strategy interventions for adolescents with LD, including the stages of the research, research standards, the curriculum, and the instructional methodology.
- peer-reviewed sources
- multiple sources
- national level sources
- quantitative data
- anecdotal evidence
Where has it been
SIM has been implemented in thousands of schools across the country. Contact the Center for Research on Learning at the University of Kansas for specific sites.