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Overview

14 Cognitive Elements of Reading

Reading Assessment Techniques

Research Evidence

Using the Framework

Acknowledgements

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Instructional Resources - Instructional Activities
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Reading Instructional Resources Database - Instructional Activities (Search Results)

The essential cognitive elements of the reading process have been outlined in the cognitive framework of reading. To assist educators in organizing their practice around the cognitive framework, we've created a way to easily search for instructional activities that specifically address skills and knowledge outlined by the cognitive framework of reading.

To find out more about the Instructional Activities portion of the Instructional Resources Database, we have provided an overview of the database and a description of the resources from which these activities were selected.

How to use this page

You have just searched the Reading Instructional Resources Database for instructional activities that test Alphabetic. There are 5 activities that match your search. You can also perform an advanced search of the Instructional Resources Database to search for more specific activities.



Knowledge of the Alphabetic Principle

What is Knowledge of the Alphabetic Principle?
Spoken words are made up of phonemes, and written words are made up of letters. However, knowledge of those two facts is not sufficient for developing good decoding skills. Knowledge of the alphabetic principle refers to an understanding that the letters in written words represent the phonemes in spoken words.

What does teaching Knowledge of the Alphabetic Principle look like?
Alphabetic principle activities help the child to understand when you write, you use letters to represent speech sounds (phonemes). The emphasis should be placed on helping children understand that written words are made up of letters, that spoken words are made up of phonemes (phoneme awareness), and that the letters in the written words represent the phonemes in the spoken words. Activities should help children to understand that written words are "sounded out," not memorized.



Displaying 1 of 5
ACTIVITY TITLE: Entrevista con un marcianoCOGNITIVE ELEMENT: Knowledge of the Alphabetic Principle

ACTIVITY:

For this activity, the teacher will need a puppet of a Martian or space alien. The teacher tells the students they will interview the Martian. The teacher models for the students the types of questions that are asked in an interview. The teacher writes the students' questions on chart paper, and provides the answers with "Martian talk."

Example:

Q: "¿Como te llamas?"
A: "Li."

Q: "¿De donde vienes?"
A: "Mafe."

Q: "¿Cuantos años tienes?"
A: "Sipo."

Q: "¿Qué te gusta comer?"
A: "Golupos."

The teacher should write out the answers to the questions that the puppet gives. When doing this the teacher should call attention to the number of letters in each word and how the words can be sounded out as they are spelled. Alternatively the teacher could have the children try to write out the answers that the puppet gives especially if the answers are nonsense words that the children do not know.

Additionally the teacher could have the children compare the answers that the puppet gives with answers that the children can give to the same questions. Compare the words on their length and number of letters.

Notes:

Reader Type: Pre-readers and emergent readers

Language: Spanish

SOURCE: Carmen Rodríguez


Displaying 2 of 5
ACTIVITY TITLE: La carreraCOGNITIVE ELEMENT: Knowledge of the Alphabetic Principle

ACTIVITY: This activity requires a small model car. The teacher writes several short words (three to four letters long) on the board. The teacher then models fluency and segmentation for the students by placing the car at the beginning of the word, and moving the car under each letter that is read. The car can either be moved fluently to blend the phonemes together to form the word or disjointedly to segment the word into its individual phonemes. In this case the teacher would stop the car under each letter while pronouncing each individual phoneme in isolation.

Notes:

Reader Type: Pre-readers and emergent readers

Language: Spanish

SOURCE: Carmen Rodríguez


Displaying 3 of 5
ACTIVITY TITLE: Role ReversalCOGNITIVE ELEMENT: Knowledge of the Alphabetic Principle

ACTIVITY: Students make up nonsense words for you to write down. Write the word exactly as they sound. Ask students to clearly enunciate each sound. Emphasize that you are writing a letter or two for each sound.

Notes:

Reader Type: Pre-readers

Language: English

SOURCE: Southwest Educational Development Laboratory


Displaying 4 of 5
ACTIVITY TITLE: Sort Words According to LengthCOGNITIVE ELEMENT: Knowledge of the Alphabetic Principle

ACTIVITY:

Give each child a collection of words written on cards (one word per card). Make sure each child has words ranging from 1 to 11 letters in length. Write the numbers 1 through 11 at even intervals across the board. Have students count the letters in their words and bring to the board any words that only contain one letter. Place those cards under the number 1 on the board. Then ask students to bring up words with two letters. Place those cards under the 2. Continue until you have used all the cards, or until you have reached 11 letters.

Select a card from the 4 letter pile and a card from the 11 letter pile. Point out to the students that you have a 4 letter word and an 11 letter word. Read one of the words aloud to the students — ask them to guess if it is a 4 letter word or an 11 letter word. Draw students' attention to the fact that words with more letters have more sounds and syllables and take longer to say out loud.

Notes:

Reader Type: Pre-readers

Language: English

SOURCE: Adopted from Phonics They Use


Displaying 5 of 5
ACTIVITY TITLE: Who is biggest?COGNITIVE ELEMENT: Knowledge of the Alphabetic Principle

ACTIVITY: Write each child's name on a card. Ask students to keep cards face down on their desk. Ask the class whose name is biggest (note, children at this age may confuse a person's name with the person, so they may say the tallest child in the class has the biggest name). Talk about how long it takes to say different names, emphasizing number of syllables and number of sounds in the person's name (e.g. Ted, Samantha). Teachers can also talk about shortened names (e.g. Mike versus Michael). After everybody understands that some names take longer to pronounce than others, ask the children to turn over the cards and compare written size Ð Emphasize the fact that children whose names are short and easy to say also have very few letters in them. Repeat the process, using children's full names or nicknames. Display the cards on the wall sorted from shortest name to longest name.

Notes: Using children's names helps children to think about names and words as being separate from the objects they represent. It is easy to contrast the characteristics of the child with the characteristics of the child's name (e.g. a small child may have a very large name).

Reader Type: Pre-readers

Language: English

SOURCE: Southwest Educational Development Laboratory

End of search results.
Displayed 5 instructional activities.

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