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14 Cognitive Elements of Reading

Reading Assessment Techniques

Research Evidence

Using the Framework

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Instructional Resources - Instructional Activities
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Reading Instructional Resources Database - Instructional Activities (Search Results)

The essential cognitive elements of the reading process have been outlined in the cognitive framework of reading. To assist educators in organizing their practice around the cognitive framework, we've created a way to easily search for instructional activities that specifically address skills and knowledge outlined by the cognitive framework of reading.

To find out more about the Instructional Activities portion of the Instructional Resources Database, we have provided an overview of the database and a description of the resources from which these activities were selected.

How to use this page

You have just searched the Reading Instructional Resources Database for instructional activities that test Decoding. There are 9 activities that match your search. You can also perform an advanced search of the Instructional Resources Database to search for more specific activities.



Decoding

What is Decoding?
Good readers are able to correctly pronounce familiar words (at the reader's level) whether they be regular or irregular words, and are able to pronounce unfamiliar words in a way consistent with the conventions of written English. For skilled readers, decoding is so automatic that it requires virtually no conscious effort, so the reader can devote full attention to the task of comprehending the text.

What does teaching Decoding look like?
Decoding activities focus on helping the child to develop fluent word recognition skills. Lessons aimed at developing decoding skills assume that the child has adequate cipher knowledge and lexical knowledge (the child can sound-out regular words and can recognize familiar irregular words). Decoding lessons focus on helping children to fluently and automatically recognize ALL words, both regular and irregular. If a child is having trouble with a decoding activity, it is probably because the child has not yet adequately developed and integrated cipher knowledge and lexical knowledge.

Decoding activities focus on fluid and rapid word recognition skills. This can be done in the context of authentic, connected text, or decoding lessons may involve word games.



Displaying 1 of 9
ACTIVITY TITLE: BaseballCOGNITIVE ELEMENT: Decoding

ACTIVITY: One child sits (the "hitter") and one stands (the "catcher") behind at the "plate." The "pitcher" (can be the teacher) stands in front of the other two with a stack of plainly printed word cards. Each word card has a "value" (single, double, triple, home-run) depending on how difficult the word is —simple, regular words are not worth as much as rare, irregular words. If the catcher names the word first, the hitter is out. If the hitter names the word first, he or she takes however many bases the word was worth.

With each new hitter from one team, the other team provides a new catcher (make sure the same children are not always competing against each other). After three outs, the teams switch. Keep score to motivate students.

Notes: This activity, and other activities that require a fast response, help the reader to develop fluency in decoding.

Reader Type: Developing readers

Language: English

SOURCE: Southwest Educational Development Laboratory


Displaying 2 of 9
ACTIVITY TITLE: Big word of the dayCOGNITIVE ELEMENT: Decoding

ACTIVITY: All day each day, students hunt for a "big word" they think is the best big word. Each student may find one best big word each day. Students write their name and nomination for "big word of the day" on a piece of paper and put the nomination in the ballot box.

At the end of the day, the teacher reads big word nominations to the class. Students who nominated the words talk to the class about why they think their big word is interesting or special . The class votes on the best big word. Each day's big word is added to a word-wall or bulletin board so students can see and practice saying the big words every day.

Notes:

Reader Type: Emergent readers and developing readers

Language: English

SOURCE: Phonics They Use


Displaying 3 of 9
ACTIVITY TITLE: Echo ReadingCOGNITIVE ELEMENT: Decoding

ACTIVITY: Echo Reading may be used enhance oral reading fluency. Read aloud one or two sentences of a text at the child's instructional level. Have the child attempt to "echo" your reading. Make sure to use appropriate phrasing and intonation, running your finger under the lines of print as you read. Have the child go back to the beginning of the sentence and read. Tell students to make their reading sound like yours.

Notes:

Reader Type: Emergent readers and developing readers

Language: English

SOURCE: Placitas Elementary—Placitas, NM


Displaying 4 of 9
ACTIVITY TITLE: Making big wordsCOGNITIVE ELEMENT: Decoding

ACTIVITY: Provide each child a piece of paper with a collection of letters written at the top, and enough space on the page to write 20 to 30 words. The letters should be a mixture of vowels and consonants, with some of the common letters repeated, such as E, E, O, O, L, L, N, S, T, W, Y. Ask students to generate as many words as they can using the letters which are provided (for younger children, you may wish to give them manipulable letter tiles, so they can move the letters around). Tell students letters may not be used twice in a word unless the letter has been given twice. Some sample words that can be generated from the letters above include ON, LOW, SNOW, SLOWLY, SWEET, and YELLOWSTONE.

Notes:

Reader Type: Emergent readers and developing readers

Language: English

SOURCE: Phonics They Use


Displaying 5 of 9
ACTIVITY TITLE: Making Words — Regular and IrregularCOGNITIVE ELEMENT: Decoding

ACTIVITY: Assemble letters in a pocket chart to make a simple regular word (e.g. MINT). Have students read the word with you. Show them how you can change one letter of the word to make another regular word (e.g. LINT). When students start to see the regular pattern, show them that the same pattern is not always pronounced the same (e.g. PINT). Emphasize the fact that most words follow the pattern, but some words do not. (e.g. HOME, DOME, ROME, SOME, COME or ROOT, HOOT, BOOT, SHOOT, FOOT).

Notes:

Reader Type: Emergent readers and developing readers

Language: English

SOURCE: Southwest Educational Development Laboratory


Displaying 6 of 9
ACTIVITY TITLE: Rhyming and spellingCOGNITIVE ELEMENT: Decoding

ACTIVITY: Write word families on a chart (e.g. work with children with common words that have the same rime but different onsets, such as RUG, BUG, HUG, etc.). Encourage students to read the words aloud. Illustrate that words that are spelled similarly (after the onset) usually rhyme (e.g. RAY, PLAY, HAY, BAY, DAY, PAY, MAY, etc). Show students that sometimes words rhyme even though they are spelled differently than the rhyming pattern (HEY, SLEIGH, WEIGH, etc). Ask students to practice saying the rhyming words and matching them to the written forms.

Notes: It is important that children first learn the typical letter-sound patterns, and that they then learn that some words rhyme even though they are not in the same "word-family."

Reader Type: Emergent readers and developing readers

Language: English

SOURCE: Southwest Educational Development Laboratory


Displaying 7 of 9
ACTIVITY TITLE: Vowel SoundsCOGNITIVE ELEMENT: Decoding

ACTIVITY: For this activity, you will need a pocket chart with the vowels arranged at the top of the chart, and you will need a stack of cards with vocabulary words (with the vowels missing) on them. Provide students with a small stack of word cards — remember, vowels are missing from each word (e.g., CH_KE, T_GHT, P_NT. Students decide what the word is, and place it under the appropriate vowel on the pocket chart. Students should then use each word to construct a sentence. As a challenge, irregular words can be mixed into the word set (e.g. CHO_R, MIN_TE, ISL_ND).

Notes: As a modification, divide the class into two teams. Teams score a point for each correct word. Throughout the activity, remind students that some words can be placed under more than one vowel on the pocket chart (e.g. P_NT could be placed under A, I, or U). Discuss word meanings to stimulate vocabulary development.

Reader Type: Emergent readers

Language: English

SOURCE: Modified from Cochiti Elementary-Cochiti, NM


Displaying 8 of 9
ACTIVITY TITLE: Word LaddersCOGNITIVE ELEMENT: Decoding

ACTIVITY: Write a word on the board that the students know how to spell and read. Tell students to come to the board and write a new word which is identical to the old word except for one letter (added, removed or changed). For example, if you start with the word IN, the first student could add a P to make PIN; the next student could change the I to an E to make PEN. Then it could become OPEN, and then OPENS, then OVENS, etc. Tell students not to go back to words that have already been used.

Notes: Variation: Tell students the first and last word in a ladder. Ask them to construct the words in the middle. Example: Provide the words, GO and KNOW; students would construct a pathway, such as GO, GOT, NOT, KNOT, KNOW.

This could also be turned into a game, like baseball. Each team takes a swing at adding a word, and when one team can not add any more words, they are "out."

Reader Type: Emergent readers and developing readers

Language: English

SOURCE: Modified from Guided Reading


Displaying 9 of 9
ACTIVITY TITLE: Word searchCOGNITIVE ELEMENT: Decoding

ACTIVITY: Place word cards around the classroom in prominent locations easy for students to see and reach. Gather students in the middle of the room. Say a word, and tell students to look for that word on a word card in the classroom. When they see it, raise their hand. The first to raise a hand is called on to get the word card. The child with the most word cards at the end wins.

Notes: As a variation, give each child a stack of cards with names of objects that can be found in the room, and have the children move around the room putting their cards with the appropriate objects.

Reader Type: Emergent readers

Language: English

SOURCE: Southwest Educational Development Laboratory

End of search results.
Displayed 9 instructional activities.

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