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Overview

14 Cognitive Elements of Reading

Reading Assessment Techniques

Research Evidence

Using the Framework

Acknowledgements

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Instructional Resources - Instructional Activities
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Reading Instructional Resources Database - Instructional Activities (Search Results)

The essential cognitive elements of the reading process have been outlined in the cognitive framework of reading. To assist educators in organizing their practice around the cognitive framework, we've created a way to easily search for instructional activities that specifically address skills and knowledge outlined by the cognitive framework of reading.

To find out more about the Instructional Activities portion of the Instructional Resources Database, we have provided an overview of the database and a description of the resources from which these activities were selected.

How to use this page

You have just searched the Reading Instructional Resources Database for instructional activities that test Syntax. There are 5 activities that match your search. You can also perform an advanced search of the Instructional Resources Database to search for more specific activities.



Syntax

What is Syntax?
Understanding isolated words is not adequate for the task of understanding language. All languages have rules regarding how words can be combined to form sentences, and an implicit understanding of the rules of sentence structure and phrasing is essential to comprehension.

What does teaching Syntax look like?
Syntax activities focus on helping children to understand and use correct sentence construction and grammar. Syntax activities focus on helping children learn to formulate and appreciate complete and complex sentences.



Displaying 1 of 5
ACTIVITY TITLE: El nuevo poema.COGNITIVE ELEMENT: Syntax

ACTIVITY: The teacher teaches the children a short poem, such as:

Marranitos
Este marranito se fue a la plaza,
éste se quedó en la casa,
éste comió ensalada,
éste no comió nada
y éste lloró gui, gui, gui...
hasta que llegó su nana.

The teacher then writes the poem on chart paper, leaving blank spaces for the nouns and verbs. The children suggest different nouns and verbs that can be used to create a new poem that is syntactically accurate. The teacher should discuss with the children why some words they suggest are appropriate while other words are not. The teacher then fills in the blank spaces on the chart paper with the nouns and verbs provided by the children.

Notes: In this activity, some of the words that children suggest could be syntactically appropriate but semantically inappropriate — you should remember that the focus of this activity is syntax, and you could even encourage students to think of nouns and verbs that are silly or meaningless in the poem.

Reading skills are necessary for this task.

Reader Type: Developing readers

Language: Spanish

SOURCE: Carmen Rodríguez


Displaying 2 of 5
ACTIVITY TITLE: Morning ActivityCOGNITIVE ELEMENT: Syntax

ACTIVITY: Before students arrive, write a short paragraph (or short sentences) on the board. Include several syntactical mistakes in the paragraph. Have students proofread the paragraph independently or with partners. When everyone has completed the exercise, have volunteers come up to the board and make corrections. As children make corrections, they should explain their rationale.

Notes: This activity is only appropriate for children who have developed some reading skills.

Reader Type: Developing readers

Language: English

SOURCE: Southwest Educational Development Laboratory


Displaying 3 of 5
ACTIVITY TITLE: Pares perfectos.COGNITIVE ELEMENT: Syntax

ACTIVITY: Write the following masculine and feminine articles on index cards: "el," "la," "los," "un," "unos," and "una." Make a second set of index cards with masculine / feminine and singular / plural nouns, such as: "niño," "niña," "perro," "gata," "mariposa," "caballo," "mesa," "lapiz," "agua," "dulces," "girafas," "padres," "chiles," "sapo," "gallo," "nubes," "piñata," "araña," etc. The student picks a card from the article pile, and a card from the noun pile, and reads both of them to the class. The class then discusses whether the article is correct for the noun. For example, if "el gata" or "la mariposa" are picked, the children decide whether the articles and nouns are correctly paired. The discussion should focus on why the pairs are correct or incorrect, and exceptions to the general rules (e.g., "la mano").

Notes: This activity is only appropriate for children who have developed some reading skills.

Reader Type: Emergent readers and developing readers

Language: Spanish

SOURCE: Carmen Rodríguez


Displaying 4 of 5
ACTIVITY TITLE: Thunbs Up Thumbs DownCOGNITIVE ELEMENT: Syntax

ACTIVITY: Talk to your students about sentence structure, and provide examples of complete and incomplete sentences. Paste a large picture on the board and have students describe in complete sentences what they see (e.g. There is a train. There is a bridge.). Next, have the students create more complex sentences (e.g. There is a train, and there is a bridge. Or, better still, There is a train crossing over a bridge.). Have the other students in the class indicate if their classmate used a complete sentence or not by using "thumbs up or down."

Notes: It is also important to talk to children about formal versus informal syntax. The way we speak to our friends is not the way we speak in class. Encourage them to compare and contrast the way they would describe the picture formally with how they would describe it informally.

Developing syntax knowledge can take a long time, so it is appropriate to do this sort of activity with children of all ages.

Reader Type: Pre-readers, emergent readers, and developing readers

Language: English

SOURCE: Fredericksburg Elementary — Fredericksburg, TX


Displaying 5 of 5
ACTIVITY TITLE: What Do You Hear?COGNITIVE ELEMENT: Syntax

ACTIVITY:

Invite the class to sit outside in a circle on the grass. Ask them to close their eyes and listen. Remain silent. After a few seconds, ask students what they heard. The activity may need to be repeated several times for children to become comfortable with the activity.

Initially, ask students to tell you what they heard in complete sentences.

Example: "I heard a bird." "I hear a dog barking."

Later, ask students to describe what they heard in more complex syntax ("First I heard a bird, then I heard a dog barking, and the whole time, I could hear the wind blowing.").

Notes: Developing syntax knowledge can take a long time, so it is appropriate to do this sort of activity with children of all ages.

Reader Type: Pre-readers, emergent readers, and developing readers

Language: English

SOURCE: Southwest Educational Development Laboratory

End of search results.
Displayed 5 instructional activities.

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