Annotated Bibliography of Resources for Educational Reform, Coherent Teaching Practice, and Improved Student Learning
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Fullan, M. G. (1991b). Professional development of educators. In M. G. Fullan, The new meaning of educational change (pp. 315-344). New York: Teachers College Press.
Fullan contends that effective teacher development and effective change processes are one and the same. He compares unsuccessful and successful staff development approaches, using several cases to illustrate successful strategies. Effective staff development fosters the development and integration of several aspects of teacher effectivenessÑtechnical skill development, critical reflection, inquiry, and collaboration. Fullan then describes opportunities for professional development throughout the teacher's career. Professional development of administrators and consultants is explored, and Fullan concludes that these individuals do not typically receive much preparation for their roles as change agents. He concludes this book chapter with a set of guidelines for effective professional development. Guideline 1 recommends that faculties and schools use three interrelated strategiesÑfaculty renewal, program innovation, and knowledge production. Guideline 2 is that learning must permeate everything the district and school does. Guideline 3 is that all promoters of professional development should pay attention to incorporating attributes of successful professional development into as many activities as possible and ensuring that the ultimate purpose of professional development is to create individual and organizational habits and structures that make continuous learning a part of the school culture.
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