Annotated Bibliography of Resources for Educational Reform, Coherent Teaching Practice, and Improved Student Learning
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Hord, S. M. (1994). Staff development and change process: Cut from the same cloth. Issues . . . about Change, 4 (2). Austin, TX: Southwest Educational Development Laboratory.
This paper describes the Joyce and Showers staff development model and relates it to a change model derived from school improvement studies. The staff development model has five components: (1) presentation of theory, new skill, or strategy; (2) modeling of skills or strategic models; (3) practice; (4) structured and open-ended feedback; and (5) coaching for application, with follow-up work to help with implementation. Studies have found that the fifth component is the most critical in effecting a change in the largest number of participants. From school improvement studies, five functional categories of interventions for change were identified: (1) developing and communicating the vision, goals and expectations; (2) planning and providing resources; (3) providing training; (4) monitoring and evaluating; and (5) providing consultation and reinforcement. Studies have found that the first category is critical and is provided primarily through the leadership of the principal. Noting the fit of the two models, Hord suggests thinking about staff development as the process of change. Successful strategies for a comprehensive approach to changing teachers' practices would then include: developing and articulating a vision, planning and providing resources, investing in training, monitoring progress, providing continuous assistance, and creating a context conducive to change.
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