Annotated Bibliography of Resources for Educational Reform, Coherent Teaching Practice, and Improved Student Learning
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Hord, S. M., Rutherford, W. L., Luling-Austin, L., & Hall, G. E. (1987). Taking charge of change. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
This book is built around the Concerns-Based Adoption Model (CBAM). The authors first share some of their conclusions about change: change is a process, not an event; change is accomplished by individuals; change is a highly personal experience; change involves developmental growth; change is best understood in operational terms; and the focus of facilitation should be on individuals, innovations, and the context. The book uses the story of change in one school district to provide the reader with a clear sense of CBAM and its applications. The CBAM model describes a process whereby a change facilitator uses various techniques for probing individuals involved in or contemplating a change process in order to understand them and their needs. The facilitator may use the Stages of Concern, Levels of Use, and Innovation Configuration diagnostic tools. With the information from this diagnosis, the facilitator can make decisions about how to use resources and provide interventions to facilitate the school improvement process. The stages of concern dimension, for example, focuses on the concerns people have about the change, described as awareness (I am not concerned about it), informational (I would like to know more), personal (How will it affect me?), management (How much time will it take?), consequence (How is it affecting my kids?), collaboration (How do I relate it to what others are doing?), and refocusing (I have ideas for improving on the idea). The authors describe the role of effective change facilitators. The book provides an overview of the roles people and their personal needs play in the change process.
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