Annotated Bibliography of Resources for Educational Reform, Coherent Teaching Practice, and Improved Student Learning
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Sashkin, M., & Egermeier, J. (1993). School change models and processes: A review and synthesis of research and practice. Washington, DC: Office of Educational Research and Improvement.
This document identifies differing perspectives, strategies, and useful principles from the 30 year history of educational change. The three most influential perspectives in educational change are the rational-science perspective (research and development approach of the 1950s to 1970s) which posits that change is created by the dissemination of innovative techniques; the political perspective (top-down approach of the 1980s) which brings about change by legislation and other mandates; and the cultural perspective (bottoms-up approach of the 1990s) which emphasizes changes in meanings and values within the organization. Four strategies for improving school performance are described, along with examples and reviews of related research studies. The focus of the "fix the parts" strategy is on the transfer and implementation of specific innovations. The focus of the "fix the people" strategy is on improving the knowledge and skills of teachers and administrators through professional development (preservice and inservice). The focus of the "fix the school" strategy, which grew out of a practice field called organizational development, aims to help people in a school solve their problems more effectively. The most recent strategy is "fix the system" or systemic reform. This strategy incorporates the other three strategies in a broader context and includes the notion of restructuring. The systems approach is described as the third wave of reform. The document includes a reference bibliography, illustrative programs, and additional sources.
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