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Reading Assessment Database: Search Results


The essential cognitive elements of the reading process have been outlined in the Cognitive Framework of Reading. To assist educators in organizing their assessment practices around the cognitive framework, we've created a way to easily search for published early reading assessments that specifically test skills and knowledge outlined by the Cognitive Framework of Reading.

To find out more about the Reading Assessment Database, you can read the overview page for a description of the database and tips for using it effectively.


You have just searched the Reading Assessment Database for Grades K-2 for published reading assessments. that test . There are 78 tests that match your search. Results are sorted by name.

Other Searches and Summary Charts:
You can also perform an new search of the assessment database to look for more specific information about reading tests, or you can view a summary chart comparing all assessments and their features.

The RAD Clipboard - for keeping track of reading assessment tools you're interested in. The Reading Assessment Clipboard:
If you would like to keep track of reading assessments that interest you, you can add them to your "Assessment Clipboard" for later viewing and printing. You even have the option to e-mail the details about the assessments to yourself or others.

  • To view the clipboard, click on the large clipboard image to the right.
  • To add an assessment to the clipboard, click on the tiny clipboard next to the assessment name as seen in the list of assessments below.


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Abecedarian Reading Assessment

Author: Sebastian Wren and Jennifer Watts
Date Published: 2002


To Purchase this assessment, you must contact the publisher.
BalancedReading.com
http://www.balancedreading.com/assessment/

 

Cost Free download
Time to administer Varies depending on subtests given
Administration Individual
Grades K, 1
Cognitive elements
supported
Decoding
Cipher Knowledge
Lexical Knowledge
Phoneme Awareness
Knowledge of Alphabetic Principle
Letter Knowledge
Semantics (Vocabulary and Morphology)
Phonological Awareness
Subtests and
skills assessed
Letter Knowledge — Students must quickly and correctly identify upper-case and lower-case letters (mixed) of the alphabet. Students must also not incorrectly identify "foils" as letters (e.g. numbers, punctuation marks, etc.).

Rhyming Perception — Student must determine if two words rhyme.

Identity Perception — Student must determine if a word contains a certain phoneme (e.g. do you hear /s/ in "card"?).

Rhyming Production — Student must produce at least two rhyming words for each target word.

Identity Production — Student must produce a word that contains a specified phoneme (e.g. give me a word that contains a /t/)

First Sounds — Student must identify the first sound (phoneme) in each word.

Last Sounds — Student must identify the last sound (phoneme) in each word.

Phoneme Segmentation — Student must say a word aloud with a clear pause inserted between each phoneme in the word.

Alphabetic Principle — Student must determine which of two written words is being spoken by the teacher (can be determined by length of the word).

Vocabulary Production — Student must generate a reasonable definition for each word in a list.

Vocabulary Antonyms — Student must determine which word has the opposite meaning of a target word.

Vocabulary Synonyms — Student must determine which word has a similar meaning as a target word.

Decoding Fluency — Student must quickly and accurately identify a mix of regular and irregular words.

Decoding Irregular Words — Student must accurately identify a set of irregular words.

Decoding Regular Words — Student must accurately identify a set of regular words.
Language(s) tool can
be administered in
English
Score reporting
and test design data
This is a criterion-referenced assessment. No normative data is reported.
Notes This assessment is available for free download (in PDF format) from http://www.balancedreading.com/assessment/. The authors recommend using certain subtests as a screen for all students, and using the rest of the subtests to more carefully examine students who did not do well on the screen. This assessment is appropriate for kindergarten and beginning-of-year 1st grade.
 


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Analytical Reading Inventory (8th Edition)

Author: Mary Lynn Woods and Alden J. Moe
Date Published: 2007


To Purchase this assessment, you must contact the publisher.
Pearson Education
http://www.mypearsonstore.com/bookstore/product.asp? isbn=0131568086

800-947-7700  

Cost $56.60
Time to administer Varies depending on passages read
Administration Individual
Grades K, 1, 2, 3, and higher
Cognitive elements
supported
Reading Comprehension
Decoding
Subtests and
skills assessed
Oral reading accuracy across different levels of text difficulty — Students read graded passages of text aloud while the teacher monitors oral reading accuracy. Instructions for "miscue analysis" are provided, as are suggestions for other areas of literacy skill development to monitor (e.g. fluency, emotional status, ability to make predictions, etc.).

Reading Comprehension — Passages are a mix of expository and narrative. Comprehension is assessed through retelling rubrics, as well as appropriateness of response to comprehension questions (literal to inferential)
Language(s) tool can
be administered in
English
Score reporting
and test design data
This is a criterion-referenced assessment — no normative data is provided.
Notes There are three forms of this assessment (A, B, and C) so repeated, comparable assessment can be given to monitor growth of literacy skills. There is an audio training CD provided with this assessment to guide teachers through the assessment and score interpretation.
 


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Aprenda: La Preuba de Logros en Espanol - 3rd Edition

Author: Pearson Education, Inc.
Date Published: 2005


To Purchase this assessment, you must contact the publisher.
Pearson Education, Inc.
http://www.pearsonassessments.com/HAIWEB/Cultures/en-us/Productdetail.htm? Pid=aprenda3&Mode=summary

800-232-1223  

Cost $265.25 for the basic package
Time to administer Untimed with flexible guidelines
Administration Individual
Grades K, 1, 2, 3, and higher
Cognitive elements
supported
Reading Comprehension
Language Comprehension
Semantics (Vocabulary and Morphology)
Subtests and
skills assessed
Sonidos y Letras — Students must match words based on initial and final phoneme, letter identification, letter sound correspondence, and identifying letters within words.

Lectura de Palabras — Students must match words with pictures and must also correctly identify written words.

Lectura de Oraciones — Students must read sentences and match them with the most appropriate picture.

Vocabulario — Students must match words based on meaning (synonyms), and they must define words in context.

Comprension de Lectura — Students must demonstrate reading comprehension through a variety of tasks (two-sentence stories, modified cloze tests, and comprehension questions).

Comprension Auditiva — Students must demonstrate oral language comprehension through tasks that include vocabulary knowledge, sentence comprehension, and story comprehension.

Ortografia — Students must demonstrate correct spelling knowledge by marking the misspelled words in sentences.
Language(s) tool can
be administered in
Spanish
Score reporting
and test design data
Raw scores can be converted to scaled scores, national and local percentile ranks, stanines, grade equivalent scores, normal curve equivalent scores, Achievement/ability comparisons, group percentile ranks and stanines, content cluster and process cluster performance categories, p-Values, and performance standards. The Aprenda 3 offers newly developed , standards-based content that yields 2004 norm-referenced information and , as desired, customized, criterion-referenced information. This test was developed and normed in Spanish. This is a general battery of assessment tools; reading is only one part of this battery of tests. Other abilities measured are mathematics and language arts.
Notes There is a battery of 12 test levels that assesses students from kindergarten to grade 12. The two levels of Preprimario (Preprimer) assess the achievement of children in kindergarten and the first half of grade 1. The eight levels of Primario (Primary) and Intermedio (Intermediate) measure the important instructional standards of curricula from the second half of grade 1 to the end of grade 9. The two levels of Avanzado (Advanced) are intended for grades 9-12. In addition to the subtests listed above, this battery also contains an English as a Second Language assessment section (Lenguaje) and an open-ended response section.
 


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Assessment of Literacy and Language (ALL)

Author: Linda J. Lombardino, R. Jane Lieberman, and Jaumeiko J. C. Brown
Date Published: 2005


To Purchase this assessment, you must contact the publisher.
The Psychological Corporation - A Harcourt Assessment Co.
http://pearsonassess.com/HAIWEB/Cultures/en-us/Productdetail.htm? Pid=015-8074-742&Mode=summary

800-211-8378  

Cost $249.00 for complete kit
Time to administer Varies depending upon subtests given
Administration Individual or Group
Grades Pre-K, K, and 1
Cognitive elements
supported
Language Comprehension
Cipher Knowledge
Letter Knowledge
Concepts About Print
Semantics (Vocabulary and Morphology)
Syntax
Phonological Awareness
Subtests and
skills assessed
Basic Concepts — Student must point to a picture that is most similar to a verbal description (e.g. "Point to the big tree").

Receptive Vocabulary — Student must point to a picture that best represents a dictated word. Words increase in difficulty.

Parallel Sentence Production — The teacher describes a picture using certain grammar, then the student describes a similar picture using the same grammatical structure the teacher did. This is a test of syntax and morphemic knowledge.

Word Relationships — Student must describe why pairs of words are related (e.g. SUN and HOT).

Rhyme Knowledge — Student must determine whether two words rhyme, decide which word out of a set of words does not rhyme, produce a rhyming word when given a prompt, and complete a sentence with an appropriate rhyming word.

Sound Categorization — Student must decide which word out of a set of words does not begin with the same sound (phoneme) as the other words.

Elision — Student must omit part of a compound word (e.g. teacher says "cowboy," and student replies with "cow."

Letter Knowledge — Student must correctly identify letters (by name, by pointing to them, and by writing them).

Phonics Knowledge — Student must identify the sounds (phonemes) that typically correspond to letters and letter clusters. Student must also correctly pronounce simple nonsense-words.

Invented Spelling — Student must write dictated words using appropriate spelling-sound conventions.

Book Handling — Student demonstrates just the most basic knowledge of concepts about print (e.g. parts of a book, direction of reading)

Concept of Word — Student demonstrates more advanced concepts about word boundaries and identifies (without decoding) specific words.

Matching Symbols — Student must match identical pairs of letters or numbers as well as clusters of letters.

Sight Word Recognition — Student must correctly identify words in a graded list.

Rapid Automatic Naming — Student must quickly identify pictures of familiar objects.

Word Retrieval — Student is given a category, and must think of as many words as possible that fit that category in one minute (e.g. "Name all of the food items you can think of.").

Listening Comprehension — Student must retell important details from a story, and also answer comprehension questions about the story.

Language(s) tool can
be administered in
English
Score reporting
and test design data
This collection of assessments is a mix of norm-referenced and criterion-referenced subtests. Where appropriate, raw scores can be converted into percentile ranks. Data from certain subtest can be combined to provide overall index scores. This assessment was standardized using a nationwide, representative sample of PreK - 1 students. Reliability coefficients were within expected ranges for students of this age range. Validity was determined using subtest intercorrelations, as well as correlations with other existing assessments (e.g. CELF Preschool-2, PIPA, ERDA-2, etc.).
Notes The different subtests in the ALL are broken down into different levels of investigation. There are indicator assessments (used as a screen for all children), diagnostic assessments (for students who did not perform well on the indicator assessment), and criterion-referenced assessments (for further investigation into the cause of the difficulties).
 


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Auditory Analysis Tests

Author: Jerome Rosner and Dorothea Simon
Date Published: 1971


To Purchase this assessment, you must contact the publisher.
Journal of Learning Disabilities (Vol. 4, No. 7. pp. 40-48)
http://ldx.sagepub.com/cgi/content/short/4/7/384? rss=1&ssource=mfc

 

Cost $15
Time to administer 10 - 15 minutes
Administration Individual
Grades 1, 2, 3, and higher
Cognitive elements
supported
Phoneme Awareness
Subtests and
skills assessed
Phonological awareness — The student must delete a sound from each word (see notes).
Language(s) tool can
be administered in
English
Score reporting
and test design data
This is a collection of criterion referenced tests; no normative data is presented. Reliability was assessed using 284 children (K - 6) in western Pennsylvania. Validity was assessed using the SAT.
Notes There are 40 items in this test — on each item, the experimenter says a word, the child repeats the word, and then the child says the word again, omitting a specified sound (a phoneme, phoneme cluster, or syllable). In all but three of the items, when the specified sound is omitted, the new word is still an English word. When a phoneme is omitted, that phoneme is always a consonant. This test has been endorsed by the Texas Education Agency.
 


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Bader Reading and Language Inventory - 6th Edition

Author: Lois A. Bader
Date Published: 2009


To Purchase this assessment, you must contact the publisher.
Pearson Education -- Merrill Printice Hall
One Lake Street
Upper Saddle River, MN 07458
http://www.pearsonhighered.com/educator/product/Bader-Reading-Language-Inventory/9780135005538.page

800-947-7700  

Cost $54.80 for graded reading passages and reproducible assessments
Time to administer Varies depending on subtests given
Administration Individual
Grades Pre-K, K, 1, 2, 3, and higher
Cognitive elements
supported
Reading Comprehension
Language Comprehension
Decoding
Cipher Knowledge
Phoneme Awareness
Letter Knowledge
Concepts About Print
Phonology
Syntax
Phonological Awareness
Subtests and
skills assessed
Student Priorities and Interests — inventories and checklists are provided to help teachers determine reading habits and interests.

English Language Screen — a set of questions requiring simple responses to determine the student's comprehension of English.

Graded word lists — the student identifies lists of words increasing in difficulty from grades Pre-K to high school. Words are a mix of regular and irregular words that should be within the oral vocabulary of students at each grade.

Graded reading passages — at every level (K-12), there are three comparable passages of text. One is to be read aloud by the student, the second is to be read silently by the student, and the third is to be read aloud by the teacher to the student. As the student reads aloud, the teacher monitors oral reading for accuracy (making note of different types of "miscues"). After each passage, the teacher asks the student to retell the story, and also asks a set of simple, explicit comprehension questions plus one inferential (interpretive) comprehension question.

Rhyme Recognition — word pairs are presented orally to the student, and the student must decide if the word pairs rhyme.

Initial Phoneme Recognition — words are presented to the student, and the student must repeat the first phoneme in the word.

Phonemic Manipulation — two sections: in the blending section, the teacher says words aloud with a clear pause between each phoneme, and the student must identify the word. In the segmentation section, the teacher says a word, and the student must repeat the word inserting a clear pause between each phoneme.

Letter Knowledge — the student must demonstrate knowledge of upper-case and lower-case letters in three different ways: by pointing to the correct letter from a set of all letters when the teacher provides the name, by providing the name when the teacher points to each letter, and by writing the correct letters when the teacher reads them aloud.

Hearing Letter Names in Words — twelve words with initial phonemes that sound like letter names (e.g. X-ray and deep) are read aloud to the student, and the student must identify the letter name at the beginning of the word.

Initial Consonant Phonics — a variety of words are presented with the same ending letters (OP) but with different first letters (e.g. ZOP, MOP, FOP). The student must correctly pronounce each word.

Initial Consonant Blend Phonics — same as previous subtest, but initial consonant blends are varied (e.g. STOP, FROP, PLOP)

Initial Consonant Digraphs — same as previous subtest, but initial consonant digraphs are varied (e.g. THOP, WHOP, PHOP)

Medial Vowel Phonics — same as previous, but the medial vowel is varied while the rest of the word remains the same (e.g. FAP, FEP, FOP)

Vowel Digraph Phonics — vowel digraphs vary and the rest of the word varies, too (e.g. SOOK, TEW, AUT)

Reversals — reversible words are given (e.g. PAL, TEN, WAS), and the student is asked to read them aloud correctly and quickly.

Structural Analysis — students read lists of nonsense words with real affixes aloud. Students also read compound words aloud.

Spelling — various lists emphasizing different spelling conventions are given to the students to spell

Visual Discrimination — students must match identical letters, words, and phrases

Auditory Discrimination — students must determine if two words read aloud to them are identical or different (e.g. BUS-BUS versus ROPE-RAP)

Literacy Concepts — student demonstrates basic knowledge of print concepts

Syntax (Word) Matching — the teacher reads a sentence repeatedly to a student, and then points to one word in the sentence. The student must determine what word the teacher is pointing to.

Semantics Cloze Tasks — a passage with words missing is read aloud to the student. For each missing word in the passage, the student must provide a semantically and syntactically reasonable word.

Grammatical Closure — students must complete sentences with grammatically correct words (e.g. I saw one man. Then I saw three _____.)
Language(s) tool can
be administered in
English
Score reporting
and test design data
This is a criterion referenced test; no normative data is presented.
Notes This is a collection of assessment tools, and the skills measured depend on the assessment given. Checklists for writing and oral language competence are also provided, as are summary sheets for organizing assessment information.
 


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Basic Reading Inventory — 10th Edition

Author: Jerry L. Johns
Date Published: 2008


To Purchase this assessment, you must contact the publisher.
Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company
http://www.kendallhunt.com/index.cfm? TKN=135EEE82-19B9-B72C-DD08D7CA60996B5D&PID=219&PRD=24669

800-247-3458  

Cost $64.95 for book and CD-ROM (which includes reproducible record booklets)
Time to administer Varies depending upon subtests given
Administration Individual
Grades Pre-K, K, 1, 2, 3, and higher
Cognitive elements
supported
Decoding
Phoneme Awareness
Letter Knowledge
Concepts About Print
Phonology
Subtests and
skills assessed
This book contains a collection of early literacy assessments for young students as well as reading comprehension and competence assessments for older students.

Early literacy assessments:

Letter Knowledge — student identifies each of 26 upper-case and lower-case letters.

Writing — Student demonstrates knowledge of print concepts by writing letters, words, and sentences (not from dictation).

Literacy Knowledge — Student demonstrates knowledge of print concepts by answering questions about print (point to letter, tell purpose of punctuation, etc.)

Wordless Picture Reading — Student makes up a story based on pictures given in a sequence.

Caption Reading — Student reads captions under pictures aloud. Oral reading accuracy is assessed.

Auditory discrimination — A test of the student's phonology; pairs of identical or similar words are read aloud to the student, and the student determines if the word pairs are the same or different.

Phoneme Awareness (Spelling) — Not really a test of phoneme awareness (see notes). Words are read aloud to the student, and the student must spell the word.

Phoneme Segmentation — This is a test of phoneme awareness (see notes). Words are read aloud to the student, and the student must repeat the word inserting a pause between each phoneme.

Word Knowledge — Students identify each word in a list and are rated on their accuracy.

Passage Reading — at the pre-primer level, very short passages of text are read aloud while the teacher monitors reading accuracy.

Reading Inventory

Graded Word Lists — Modified Dolch lists designed to help teachers quickly estimate the reading level of students. The lists are meant to be followed by passages of connected text.

Oral Reading Accuracy — Student reads passages aloud; teachers record the different types of errors or "miscues" the student makes.

Oral Reading Fluency — a note is made that teachers can use the graded reading passages to assess oral reading fluency for rate and expression. Norms for reading rates are provided.

Oral Reading Comprehension — Passages are a mix of expository and narrative form. Explicit comprehension questions about details from the text are provided after each passage, but teachers are encouraged to supplement the questions with retelling and discussion.

Listening Comprehension — A note is made that passages can be used to determine a student's "listening comprehension level."
Language(s) tool can
be administered in
English
Score reporting
and test design data
This is a criterion-referenced collection of assessments. No normative or validation information is provided.
Notes This collection of assessments is primarily designed to help teachers identify each student's independent, instructional, and frustration reading levels. Guides are provided to help teachers determine each child's different reading levels. Some of the reading passages are equivalent in difficulty, so teachers can use this assessment as a pre- and post-test of reading competence. The Phoneme Awareness (Spelling) assessment is really a test of letter-sound knowledge — the Phoneme Segmentation test is actually a test of phoneme awareness.
 


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Boehm Test of Basic Concepts - 3rd Edition (Boehm-3)

Author: Ann E. Boehm
Date Published: 2000


To Purchase this assessment, you must contact the publisher.
The Psychological Corporation - A Harcourt Assessment Co.
http://pearsonassess.com/HAIWEB/Cultures/en-us/Productdetail.htm? Pid=015-4020-80X

800-211-8378  

Cost $157.00 (Test kit for 30 students)
Time to administer 30 - 40 minutes
Administration Group
Grades K, 1, and 2
Cognitive elements
supported
Semantics (Vocabulary and Morphology)
Subtests and
skills assessed
Basic Concept Knowledge — Student must demonstrate knowledge and familiarity with 50 concepts that are important to be successful in school, such as words used to describe qualities of people or objects, spatial relationships, time, and quantity.
Language(s) tool can
be administered in
English and Spanish
Score reporting
and test design data
Raw score can be converted into performance ranges, and a percentile scores. More than 18,000 students in the U.S. participated in the fall and spring standardization and the related reliability and validity studies for the English and Spanish versions.
Notes There are two parallel forms of Boehm-3: Form E and Form F. Each form addresses the same 50 concepts, in the same order, using different contexts. Students are tested in the Fall and Spring on the same concepts. By assessing basic concepts - the assessment can also assess a students vocabulary.
 


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Boehm Test of Basic Concepts - 3rd Edition - Preschool (Boehm-3)

Author: Ann E. Boehm
Date Published: 2001


To Purchase this assessment, you must contact the publisher.
Pro-Ed
http://www.proedinc.com/customer/ProductView.aspx? ID=2253

800-211-8378  

Cost $179.00 (Examniner's manual, Stimulus Manual, 25 Record Forms)
Time to administer 20-30 minutes
Administration Individual
Grades Pre-K and K
Cognitive elements
supported
Semantics (Vocabulary and Morphology)
Subtests and
skills assessed
Concept Knowledge — Assesses understanding of the basic relational concepts important for language and cognitive development needed to succeed in preschool. Basic relational concepts are words used to describe qualities of people or objects, spatial relationships, time, and quantity.
Language(s) tool can
be administered in
English and Spanish
Score reporting
and test design data
Raw score can be converted into performance ranges, and a percentile scores. More than 1,600 children in the U.S. participated in the standardization and the related reliability and validity studies for the English and Spanish versions.
Notes This test was introduced in 1986 as a downward extension of the Boehm Test of Basic Concepts. By assessing basic relational concepts - the assessment can also assess a students vocabulary.
 


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Bracken Basic Concept Scale - Third Edition: Receptive

Author: Bruce A. Bracken
Date Published: 1998


To Purchase this assessment, you must contact the publisher.
Pearson
http://pearsonassess.com/haiweb/cultures/en-us/productdetail.htm? pid=015-8032-101

800-211-8378  

Cost $42 for a package of 15 Record Forms
Time to administer 30 minutes
Administration Individual
Grades Pre-K, K, 1, 2
Cognitive elements
supported
Letter Knowledge
Semantics (Vocabulary and Morphology)
Subtests and
skills assessed
Colors — Student must identify common colors by name.

Letters — Students must identify upper-case and lower-case letters.

Numbers/Counting — Student must identify single- and double-digit numerals, and must count objects.

Sizes — Student must demonstrate knowledge of words used to depict size (e.g. TALL, WIDE, etc.)

Comparisons — Student must match or differentiate objects based on a specific characteristic.

Shapes — Student must identify basic shapes by name.

Direction / Position — Students must demonstrate knowledge of words used to depict direction (e.g. UNDER, CENTER, LEFT)

Self / Social Awareness — Students must demonstrate familiarity with social concepts as well as relationship terms (e.g. ANGRY, TIRED, FATHER, YOUNG).

Texture / Material — Students must demonstrate knowledge of words used to depict texture or materials (e.g. SOLID, ROUGH, METAL, GLASS).

Quantity — Students must demonstrate knowledge of words used to describe quantity (e.g. FULL, TRIPLE, A LOT).

Time / Sequence — Students must demonstrate knowledge of concepts related to time or sequence (e.g. after, summer, first).
Language(s) tool can
be administered in
English and Spanish
Score reporting
and test design data
Raw scores can be converted to percentile rank scores and standard scores. Guides are provided to convert standard scores into criterion categories (e.g. "advanced" or "delayed"). Reliability measures were within expected ranges given the age of the students. Validity was assessed using other published assessments (e.g. WPPSI-R, DAS). The BBCS Spanish Edition was developed, normed, and validated independently.
Notes This assessment can be used with children as young as 2.6 years of age.
 


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Bracken School Readiness Assessment (BSRA)

Author: Bruce A. Bracken
Date Published: 2007


To Purchase this assessment, you must contact the publisher.
Pearson Assessment and Information
http://pearsonassess.com/HAIWEB/Cultures/en-us/Productdetail.htm? Pid=015-8033-078

800-211-8378  

Cost $155 for Examiner's Manual, Stimulus Manual, 25 English Record Forms and a pad of 25 English Parent/Teacher Forms
Time to administer Varies depending on age of student
Administration Individual
Grades Pre-K, K, 1, 2
Cognitive elements
supported
Semantics (Vocabulary and Morphology)
Subtests and
skills assessed
Colors — Student must identify common colors by name.

Letters — Students must identify upper-case and lower-case letters.

Numbers/Counting — Student must identify single- and double-digit numerals, and must count objects.

Sizes — Student must demonstrate knowledge of words used to depict size (e.g. TALL, WIDE, etc.)

Comparisons — Student must match or differentiate objects based on a specific characteristic.

Shapes — Student must identify basic shapes by name.
Language(s) tool can
be administered in
English and Spanish
Score reporting
and test design data
Raw scores can be converted to percentile rank scores and standard scores. Guides are provided to convert standard scores into criterion categories (e.g. "advanced" or "delayed"). Reliability measures were within expected ranges given the age of the students. Validity was assessed using other published assessments (e.g. WPPSI-R, DAS). The BSRA Spanish Edition was developed, normed, and validated independently.
Notes This assessment can be used with children as young as 2.6 years of age. The Bracken School Readiness Assessment is comprised of the first 6 subtests from the revised Bracken Basic Concepts Scale (BBCS-R).
 


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Brigance Diagnostic Comprehensive Inventory of Basic Skills - Revised (CIBS-R)

Author: Albert H. Brigance
Date Published: 1999


To Purchase this assessment, you must contact the publisher.
Curriculum Associates, Inc
http://www.curriculumassociates.com/Products/detail.asp? Title=BrigCIBS

(800) 225-0248  

Cost
Time to administer Dependent on student and assessments administered
Administration Individual
Grades Pre-K, K, 1, 2, 3, and higher
Cognitive elements
supported
Reading Comprehension
Language Comprehension
Decoding
Cipher Knowledge
Letter Knowledge
Phonology
Semantics (Vocabulary and Morphology)
Subtests and
skills assessed
This is a collection of assessment tools, and the skills measured depend on the assessment given. Each assessment contains multiple subtests.

Readiness — too many subtests to list (27 subtests). Examples include recognizing colors, self-help skills, drawing a person, visual motor skills, visual discrimination, letter and alphabet knowledge, letter and number writing, counting and gross motor skills.

Listening comprehension — five subtests: Auditory discrimination (phonology), sentence memory, following oral directions (language comprehension), listening vocabulary grade-placement test, listening comprehension grade-placement test.

Word recognition grade-placement test — a test of decoding skill; words from a graded word list are read aloud

Oral reading — graded passages; oral reading accuracy is scored. A test of decoding skill.

Reading and listening comprehension — two subtests: Reading vocabulary comprehension grade placement test (child must pick one word from a group that does not belong) and graded comprehension passages (comprehension is assessed through multiple-choice questions)

Word analysis — the word analysis survey is one subtest: auditory discrimination, reading rhymes, and reading words in word families. The word analysis section also contains other non-validated assessments which are similar to the sub-parts of the word analysis survey (but which are too numerous to list here).

Functional word recognition — basic sight vocabulary, direction words, number words, warning and safety signs, information signs, warning labels and food labels

Spelling — spelling grade placement (graded word lists), initial consonants, initial blends and digraphs, suffixes, prefixes, and number words
Language(s) tool can
be administered in
English
Score reporting
and test design data
Scores are presented as raw scores, percentiles, grade-equivalent scores, and age-equivalent scores. Criterion-referenced categories are also provided to give a categorical description of the student's performance. This assessment battery was standardized on a representative nationwide sample of 1,121 children. Test-retest reliability in the lower grades was in the .85 range, and the inter-rater reliability, alternative forms reliability, and internal consistency measures were all also uniformly high. Validity was assessed using the Iowa Test of Basic Skills, the Stanford Achievement Test, and the California Achievement Test.
Notes This inventory has options for group testing on certain subtests. Two forms of the test are available for pre- and post-test applications. In the word analysis section, special attention is given to the position of the sounds/letters in the words (e.g. initial consonant or final consonant). Also, special consideration is given to blends and digraphs. The revised version of this assessment battery was published in August of 1998. This assessment battery also includes assessments in speech, writing, basic math, graphs and maps, and reference skills.
 


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Brigance Diagnostic Inventory of Early Development II (IED-II)

Author: Albert Brigance and Frances Page Glascoe
Date Published: 2004


To Purchase this assessment, you must contact the publisher.
Curriculum Associates
http://www.curriculumassociates.com/products/detail.asp? Title=BrigIED2#buy_now_banner

800-225-0248  

Cost $159.00
Time to administer Varies depending on subtests given.
Administration Individual
Grades Pre-K, K, 1, 2
Cognitive elements
supported
Decoding
Cipher Knowledge
Letter Knowledge
Background Knowledge
Semantics (Vocabulary and Morphology)
Subtests and
skills assessed
This assessment collection contains too many subtests to adequately describe all of them. Specific reading-related assessments include:

Visual Discrimination — Student must determine whether sets of shapes, letters, and whole words are identical or different.

Lowercase Letter Knowledge — Student must correctly identify lowercase letters.

Word Recognition — Student must correctly identify regular and irregular words from lists.

Passage Reading — Student must read passages of text accurately.

Matches Initial Consonant with Pictures — Student must identify pictures of items whose names begin with the same letter.

Substitutes Initial Consonant Sounds — Teacher points to and says one of two words that rhyme, and the student must identify the second word (which differs only in the first letter — e.g. PAT-BAT).

Substitutes Short/Long Vowel Sounds — Teacher points to and says one of two words that are identical except for the medial vowel, and the student must identify the second word (which differs only in the medial vowel — e.g. DOT-DAT).

Writing — there are various subtests that require the student to write familiar words and letters accurately and legibly.

More — See notes
Language(s) tool can
be administered in
English
Score reporting
and test design data
Most of the subtests provide an expected criterion level, but normative data is also provided to compare students who take this test against a representative normative sample. Raw scores can be converted to percentile ranks and age-equivalent scores. Reliability and validity data was collected in 2003 on a sizeable, representative, nation-wide sample of students. Reliability and validity data is provided in the IED-II Standardization and Validation Manual.
Notes In addition to the assessments listed above, this assessment collection contains a variety of motor-skill assessments, school readiness assessments, and basic math assessments. It also contains multiple vocabulary and comprehension assessments, including picture vocabulary, color identification, shape identification, following directions, sentence memory, picture classification, and world knowledge.
 


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Brigance K & 1 Screen II

Author: Albert Brigance and Frances Page Glascoe
Date Published: 2005


To Purchase this assessment, you must contact the publisher.
Curriculum Associates
http://www.curriculumassociates.com

800-225-0248  

Cost $139 per pack of 120 data sheets; $38 for a pack of 30 sheets.
Time to administer Approximately 15 minutes
Administration Individual
Grades Pre-K
Cognitive elements
supported
Language Comprehension
Decoding
Cipher Knowledge
Letter Knowledge
Semantics (Vocabulary and Morphology)
Syntax
Subtests and
skills assessed
Identifies Body Parts — Student must name body parts when pointed to.

Gross Motor Skills — Student must demonstrate balance through several tasks.

Color Recognition — Student must point to correct colors as the teacher names them.

Visual Motor Skills — Student must copy shapes accurately.

Prints Personal Data — Student must write first and last name.

Rote Counting — Student counts as high as he or she can.

Numeral Comprehension — Student must match quantity of objects with numerals.

Number Readiness — Student matches groups of objects based on their number.

Reads Uppercase Letters — Student must correctly identify upper-case letters.

Reads Lowercase Letters — Student must correctly identify lower-case letters.

Recites Alphabet — Student must recite the alphabet correctly.

Visual Discrimination — Student must determine whether groups of letters and words are identical or different.

Phonemic Awareness and Decoding — Groups of words all starting with the same phoneme are read aloud to the student, and the student must correctly identify the letter those words all start with.

Listening Vocabulary Comprehension — Sets of words are read aloud to the student. In each set, all but one of the words are semantically related. The student must decide which word does not belong in the set.

Word Recognition — Student must correctly identify grade-appropriate lists of regular and irregular words.

Draws A Person — Student must draw a complete picture of a person, including a variety of body parts.

Computation — Student must solve simple math problems.

Numerals in Sequence — Student must write numerals from one to ten.
Language(s) tool can
be administered in
English
Score reporting
and test design data
The Brigance Screens were re-standardized and validated in 2005 with 1366 students from across the country. Normative tables are provided to convert raw scores into age-equivalent scores. Reliability and validity procedures and data are provided in the Technical Manual.
Notes This assessment is described as a criterion-referenced assessment, but normative data is provided which allows the teacher to compare a student's score against typical students at different ages.

Note: This screen manual is no longer available. Data sheets for this screen are still available. A new version "2010 K & 1 Screen" available from Curriculum Associates at: http://www.curriculumassociates.com/products/detail.asp?title=BrigEC-Screens
 


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Brigance Preschool Screen II

Author: Albert Brigance and Frances Page Glascoe
Date Published: 2005


To Purchase this assessment, you must contact the publisher.
Curriculum Associates
http://www.curriculumassociates.com

800-225-0248  

Cost $115.00 for the technical report manual and a 30-pack of data sheets
Time to administer Approximately 15 minutes
Administration Individual
Grades Pre-K
Cognitive elements
supported
Language Comprehension
Semantics (Vocabulary and Morphology)
Syntax
Subtests and
skills assessed
Color Recognition — Student must point to correct colors as the teacher names them.

Picture Vocabulary — Student must identify pictures of objects.

Visual Discrimination — Student must determine whether forms and uppercase letters are identical or different.

Visual Motor Skills — Student must copy shapes accurately.

Gross Motor Skills — Student must stand on one foot.

Rote Counting — Student counts as high as he or she can.

Identifies Body Parts — Student must name body parts when pointed to.

Follows Verbal Directions — Student must listen to instructions and follow them.

Number Concepts — Student must count and gives the teacher a specified number of objects.

Responds to Picture — Student describes a scene while the teacher makes note of vocabulary, syntax, and prediction.

Articulates Initial Sounds — Student is asked to name pictures of objects while teacher notes whether the student correctly pronounces the initial sound (phoneme) in each word.
Language(s) tool can
be administered in
English
Score reporting
and test design data
The Brigance Screens were re-standardized and validated in 2005 with 1366 students from across the country. Normative tables are provided to convert raw scores into age-equivalent scores. Reliability and validity procedures and data are provided in the Technical Manual.
Notes This assessment is described as a criterion-referenced assessment, but normative data is provided which allows the teacher to compare a student's score against typical students at different ages.
 


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Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP)

Author: Richard Wagner, Joseph Torgesen, and Carol Rashotte
Date Published: 1999


To Purchase this assessment, you must contact the publisher.
ProEd Publishing Co.
8700 Shoal Creek Blvd.
Austin, TX 78757-6897
http://www.proedinc.com

(800) 897-3202  

Cost $276.00 for classroom kit.
Time to administer Approximately 30 minutes
Administration Individual
Grades K, 1, 2, 3
Cognitive elements
supported
Phoneme Awareness
Phonological Awareness
Subtests and
skills assessed
Elision — The student must repeat a word with one phoneme omitted (when the phoneme is omitted, the remaining word is always a real word).

Blending Words — Words are spoken aloud to the student with a clear pause between each phoneme, and the student must correctly identify each word.

Initial Sound Matching — The student must match two words that begin with the same sound (phoneme).

Final Sound Matching — The student must match two words that end with the same sound (phoneme).

Nonword Repetition — Non-words are read aloud to the student, and the student must repeat them verbatim. Some of the non-words are very long, so this is a test of phonological memory span.

Rapid Color Naming — The student must identify colors by name as quickly as possible (for ages 7 and older only).

Rapid Digit Naming — The student must identify numerals from a list as quickly as possible (for ages 7 and older only).

Rapid Letter Naming — The student must identify letters of the alphabet as quickly as possible (for ages 7 and older only).

Rapid Object Naming — The student must identify objects (from pictures) as quickly as possible.

Blending Nonwords — Nonsense words are spoken aloud to the student with a clear pause between each phoneme, and the student must correctly identify each nonsense word.

Phoneme Reversal — Real words are read backwards to the student. The student must identify the word (for ages 7 and older only).

Segmenting Words — A word is spoken aloud to the student, and the student repeats the word, placing a clear pause between each phoneme (for ages 7 and older only).

Segmenting Nonwords — A nonsense word is spoken aloud to the student, and the student repeats the nonsense word, placing a clear pause between each phoneme (for ages 7 and older only).

Memory for Digits — Random digits are read aloud to the student, and the student must repeat them in the same order.

Language(s) tool can
be administered in
English
Score reporting
and test design data
Scores from subtests can be combined to derive three composite scores: the Phonological Awareness Quotient, the Phonological Memory Quotient, and the Rapid Naming Quotient. Scores can be converted into percentiles, standard scores, and age- and grade-equivalent scores. Normed on a representative nationwide sample of more than 1,600 students. Reliability coefficients were in the .70 to .90 range, and validity measures are available from the publisher.
Notes This is a collection of assessments designed to assess verbal memory, rapid automatized naming (RAN), and phonological processing (PP). RAN and PP have been shown to make separate contributions to reading success, and are the two components of the double-deficit hypothesis.
 


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Criterion Test of Basic Skills (CTOBS-2)

Author: James Evans, Kerth Lundell, William Brown, 2nd Edition
Date Published: 2002


To Purchase this assessment, you must contact the publisher.
Academic Therapy Publications
http://www.academictherapy.com

(800) 422-7249  

Cost $115 (Test kit of 25 for reading and arithmetic)
Time to administer 15 - 20 minutes
Administration Individual
Grades 1, 2, 3, and higher
Cognitive elements
supported
Decoding
Cipher Knowledge
Letter Knowledge
Phonological Awareness
Subtests and
skills assessed
Letter Recognition — Student must identify individual letters of the alphabet by name.

Letter Sounds — Student must match letters with appropriate sounds (phonemes).

Blending — Student must correctly identify words that are segmented.

Sequencing — Student must arrange pictures to reflect a proper story sequence.

Decoding — Student must identify proper pronunciation of common spelling patterns, multi-syllable words, and common sight words.
Language(s) tool can
be administered in
English
Score reporting
and test design data
This is a criterion referenced assessment. No normative data is provided. Recommended to be used as a pre and post test - test results are intended to be used to show individual growth.
Notes Results are tabulated into 3 Levels: Mastery Level (90-100%) Instructional Level (50-89%) and Frustration Level (0-49%). The CTOBS-2 also contains a basic math subtest.
 


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Decoding Skills Test

Author: Ellis Richardson and Barbara DiBenedetto
Date Published: 1985


To Purchase this assessment, you must contact the publisher.
ProEd Publishing Co.
12031 Wilshire Boulevard
Los Angeles, CA 90025-1251
http://www.proedinc.com

800-897-7633  

Cost $156.00 for classroom kit
Time to administer 15 to 30 minutes
Administration Individual
Grades 1, 2, 3, and higher
Cognitive elements
supported
Decoding
Cipher Knowledge
Subtests and
skills assessed
Basal vocabulary — Student must correctly identify regular and irregular words from graded lists

Phonic patterns — Student must correctly identify both real and nonsense words — all real words are regular, decodable words.

Contextual decoding — Student must read short passages of text while teacher assesses comprehension, reading rate, and reading accuracy.

Language(s) tool can
be administered in
English
Score reporting
and test design data
This is a criterion referenced test; no normative data is presented. Scores are reported as raw scores and reading achievement level scores. Reliability for this assessment was determined using a sample of more than 1,200 students across Atlanta, Georgia, along with 238 children in New York City in 1978. Internal reliability measures were found to be in the .90 range, and test-retest reliability scores were in the .90 range
Notes This test can be used as a screening device, but the publishers state that it is especially useful with students who have already demonstrated reading difficulties.
 


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Developmental Reading Assessment, K-3 - 2nd Edition (DRA-2, K-3)

Author: Joetta M. Beaver
Date Published: 2006


To Purchase this assessment, you must contact the publisher.
Celebration Press -- Pearson Learning Group
http://www.pearsonlearning.com

1-800-321-3106  

Cost $310.95 for classroom kit
Time to administer Varies depending on level and passages read
Administration Individual
Grades K, 1, 2, 3
Cognitive elements
supported
Reading Comprehension
Decoding
Cipher Knowledge
Phoneme Awareness
Letter Knowledge
Semantics (Vocabulary and Morphology)
Phonological Awareness
Subtests and
skills assessed
Phonological Awareness — Through a variety of tasks, students must demonstrate awareness of rhyme, alliteration, and phoneme awareness.

Metalanguage — Students must demonstrate knowledge of the words used to talk about print language.

Letter/High-Frequency Words — Students must identify upper- and lower-case letters as well as graded lists of high-frequency "sight" words.

Phonics — Through a variety of tasks, students must correctly spell words, correctly identify words, and identify words that share certain characteristics with target words.

Structural Analysis and Syllabication — students must segment words into syllables, and must analyze word parts (prefix, suffix, etc.) to determine the meaning of a word.

Oral Reading Accuracy — As the student reads each passage of text aloud, the teacher makes notes of oral reading "miscues," categorizing each type of oral reading error.

Oral Reading Fluency — As the student reads each passage aloud, the teacher makes notes of oral reading rate and oral reading expression.

Oral Reading Comprehension — The teacher asks questions of the student and evaluates the quality of the student's response using a rubric. Questions reflect different types of comprehension skills (literal, interpretation, reflection, prediction, summarization, etc.)
Language(s) tool can
be administered in
English and Spanish
Score reporting
and test design data
This is a criterion-referenced assessment; no normative data is provided. Student scores are translated into reading level, and described in terms of Intervention, Instructional, Independent, and Advanced. Publishers report that research is being conducted to establish percentiles and stanines.
Notes A Spanish version of the DRA-2 is also available — the Evaluacion del Desarrollo de la Lectura (EDL). Also available for grades 4-8. Training DVDs are provided to help teachers learn how to administer the DRA-2. The Word Analysis tasks are intended to be given to students in kindergarten and beginning 1st grade, and to students who do not perform well on the passage reading tasks in grades 1-3. A Teacher Observation Guide is provided with this assessment to help teachers gather and organize information about student literacy behaviors. The publishers also provide an on-line data management system for the DRA-2. Instruction suggestions are provided to help teachers translate assessment data into instruction focused on student learning needs.
 


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Diagnostic Assessments of Reading — 2nd Edition

Author: Florence Roswell, Jeanne Chall, Mary E. Curtis, and Gail Kearns
Date Published: 2005


To Purchase this assessment, you must contact the publisher.
Riverside Publishing Company (division of Houghton Mifflin)
425 Spring Lake Dr.
Itasca, IL 60143
http://www.riversidepublishing.com

(800) 323-9540  

Cost $247.00 (manual, student book and 2 packages of 15 of the response record)
Time to administer 20 to 30 minutes (no time constraint is prescribed)
Administration Individual
Grades K, 1, 2, 3, and higher
Cognitive elements
supported
Reading Comprehension
Decoding
Cipher Knowledge
Phoneme Awareness
Letter Knowledge
Concepts About Print
Semantics (Vocabulary and Morphology)
Phonological Awareness
Subtests and
skills assessed
Print Awareness — Student must demonstrate understanding of basic concepts about print (e.g. distinguishes letters from words).

Rhyming — Student determines whether or not a pair of given words rhyme.

Segmenting Words — Student must tap once for each syllable in a word.

Identifying Initial Consonant Sounds — Student must repeat the first phoneme (sound) in a word.

Identifying Final Consonant Sounds — Student must repeat the last phoneme (sound) in a word.

Auditory Blending — Teacher reads words aloud with a clear pause between each phoneme, and the student must correctly identify the word.

Naming Capital Letters — Student must correctly identify capital letters.

Naming Lowercase Letters — Student must correctly identify lowercase letters.

Matching Letters — Student must determine whether two letters are identical or different.

Matching Words — Student must determine whether two words are identical or different.

Writing Words — Student must correctly write simple, 3-letter (CVC) words from dictation.

Word Recognition — The student must correctly identify regular and irregular words from increasingly difficult lists of words.

Consonant Sounds — Student must correctly identify the sounds (phonemes) that correspond to different letters (consonants).

Consonant Blends — Student must correctly identify the sounds (phonemes) that correspond to different consonant clusters (consonant blends).

Short Vowel Sounds — Student must correctly identify a variety of different words that all contain the same short vowel sound.

Rule of Silent E — Student must correctly read pairs of words that differ only in that one has a silent-e ending (e.g. HAT - HATE).

Vowel Digraphs — Student must correctly identify words that contain a vowel digraph (e.g. MAY).

Dipthongs — Student must correctly identify words that contain a dipthong (e.g. JOY).

Vowels with R — Students must correctly identify words that contain R-controlled vowels.

Two-Syllable Words — Students must correctly identify two-syllable words.

Polysyllabic Words — Student must correctly identify polysyllabic words.

Oral Reading — Student must read graded passages of text aloud with accuracy. (Optional: fluency can be assessed by recording the time it takes students to read each passage.)

Silent Reading Comprehension — Student must read graded passages of text silently, and then must describe what the passage is about (Levels 1 -2) or answer explicit reading comprehension questions (Levels 3 and above).

Spelling — Words of increasing difficulty are read aloud to the student, and the student must write the words with correct spelling.

Word Meaning — Words from graded word lists are presented orally, and the student must provide an appropriate definition for each word.

Language(s) tool can
be administered in
English
Score reporting
and test design data
For each of the subtests above, a criterion for acceptable performance is provided. For sections of the test, raw scores can be converted to national percentile ranks following tables provided in the Technical Manual. This assessment was standardized nationally on 1,664 students in 1989, and validity measures were determined using the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests (GMRT) in 1990-1991. Reliability and validity measures for this assessment are within expected ranges — complete data is provided in the Technical Manual.
Notes This assessment has a complementary reading program — the assessment and instructional program combined is called the Diagnostic Assessment of Reading with Trial Teaching Strategies (DAR-TTS), so learning needs that are revealed by the DAR can be addressed by the appropriate portion of the TTS.
 


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Dominie Reading and Writing Assessment Portfolio (Revised)

Author: Diane DeFord
Date Published: 2004


To Purchase this assessment, you must contact the publisher.
Dominie Press -- Pearson Learning Group
http://www.pearsonlearning.com

800-321-3106  

Cost $242.95 for Grades K-3 and $172.50 for Grades 4-8
Time to administer Varies depending on grade and subtests given
Administration Individual or Small Groups
Grades K, 1, 2, 3, and higher
Cognitive elements
supported
Decoding
Cipher Knowledge
Phoneme Awareness
Letter Knowledge
Concepts About Print
Subtests and
skills assessed
Show Me the Book — Student must write his or her own name, and then must demonstrate knowledge of print conventions (e.g. point to a letter, point to a word, etc.). A rubric is provided for scoring the name writing. (Level K)

Oral Reading and Comprehension — Student must read accurately and fluently from passages of text. Guides are provided for observing and assessing the oral reading behavior of a student. (Level K, 1, 2, 3)

Phonemic Awareness — For half of the items, students must push up a coin with each sound (phoneme) they hear in a nonsense word (Elkonin Box Task). For the rest of the items, students must determine what word remains when a phoneme is deleted (e.g. delete /p/ from PART). (Level K, 1)

Inventory of Onsets and Rimes — Student must identify the appropriate phoneme that corresponds to each letter or letter cluster. (Level 1, 2, 3)

Reading Words from Lists — Student must correctly identify high-frequency words from graded lists. (Level K, 1, 2, 3)

Letter Knowledge — Student must correctly identify lower-case and upper-case letters. (Level K, 1)

Core Writing Words — Student must write all the words he or she can in 10 minutes. (Level K, 1)

Sentence Writing and Spelling — Students must write words and sentences from dictation, and must also produce appropriate sentences without dictation. (Level K, 1, 2, 3)
Language(s) tool can
be administered in
English
Score reporting
and test design data
Some subtests can be examined in relation to normative data. For those subtests, raw scores can be converted into stanines. For other subtests, criterion scores are provided.
Notes There are multiple versions of many subtests to allow for repeated assessment (Form A and B). Some of the reading passages are intended for informal follow-up and monitoring. A flow-chart of benchmark assessment and monitoring is provided. This assessment is also available for grades 4-8.
 


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Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills — 6th Edition (DIBELS-6)

Author: University of Oregon
Date Published: 2005


To Purchase this assessment, you must contact the publisher.
University of Oregon
http://dibels.uoregon.edu/

 

Cost Free download
Time to administer Approximately 10 minutes
Administration Individual
Grades Pre-K, K, 1, 2, 3
Cognitive elements
supported
Reading Comprehension
Decoding
Cipher Knowledge
Phoneme Awareness
Letter Knowledge
Phonological Awareness
Subtests and
skills assessed
ISF: Initial Sounds Fluency — The student must select a picture of an object whose name begins with a given phoneme. The teacher monitors both fluency and accuracy. (PreK and K)

LNF: Letter Naming Fluency — The student must identify as many upper-case and lower-case letters as possible within one minute. (K and 1)

PSF: Phoneme Segmentation Fluency — The teacher says a word aloud, and the student must quickly repeat that word, inserting a clear pause between each phoneme. The student must do this for as many words as possible within one minute. (K and 1)

NWF: Nonsense Word Fluency — The student must correctly pronounce as many nonsense words as possible in one minute. (K and 1)

ORF: DIBELS Oral Reading Fluency — The student must read aloud as much of a passage of text as possible in one minute. After reading aloud, the student must also describe or retell the content of the passage of text. (1, 2, 3)

WUF: Word Use Fluency — The student is given a word to use in a sentence or to define, and the teacher monitors both the accuracy of the use or definition as well as the number of words the student uses in his or her response. (K, 1, 2, 3)

Language(s) tool can
be administered in
English
Score reporting
and test design data
This is a criterion-referenced assessment — there does not appear to be any current normative data available (see notes). The reliability of each subtest has been assessed, and results were well within expected ranges for students at this age. Other reputable published assessments (such as Woodcock-Johnson) were used to assess the validity of each subtest. Reliability and validity information is available on the publisher's website and in downloadable technical reports.
Notes Oral reading fluency passages are also available for grades 4, 5, and 6. There are a collection of technical reports available from the DIBELS website, and some of these reports provide information about converting DIBELS raw scores into percentile scores. However, it is unclear if these reports are referring to the most recent version of the DIBELS. There are many alternate forms of each of the subtests to allow for valid and objective progress monitoring. The DIBELS assessment is free, but for a fee, there are services from the publisher for organizing and interpreting DIBELS data.
 


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Early Reading Diagnostic Assessment - 2nd Edition (ERDA-2)

Author: The Psychological Corporation
Date Published: 2009


To Purchase this assessment, you must contact the publisher.
The Psychological Corporation - A Harcourt Assessment Co.
http://PsychCorp.com

800-211-8378  

Cost $318.00 for manuals and 25 record forms, etc per grade level
Time to administer 60 to 110 minutes if all subtest are administered
Administration Individual
Grades K, 1, 2, 3
Cognitive elements
supported
Reading Comprehension
Language Comprehension
Decoding
Cipher Knowledge
Letter Knowledge
Concepts About Print
Semantics (Vocabulary and Morphology)
Phonological Awareness
Subtests and
skills assessed
Letter Recognition (Grades K, 1) — Student must identify letters of the alphabet by name.

Concepts of Print (Grades K, 1) — Student is given a sample of text, and the teacher fills out a checklist based on the students behavior.

Story Retell / Listening Comprehension (Grades K, 1, 2, 3) — A story is read aloud to the student, and the student must answer comprehension questions about the story. Rubrics are provided for evaluating the quality of the student's response to each question.

Rhyming (Grade K) — For some items, the student must decide if two words rhyme. For the rest of the items, the student must generate rhymes for words.

Phonemes (Grades K, 1, 2) — For some items, the student must determine which phoneme has been omitted from a word. For the rest of the items, the student must identify the sounds (phonemes) that correspond to the remaining letters.

Syllables (Grade K) — The student must omit a syllable from a word.

Receptive Vocabulary (Grades K, 1, 2, 3) — Student must select a picture that best corresponds to a given word.

Expressive Vocabulary (Grades K, 1, 2, 3) — Student must generate a word that best describes a picture or a verbal cue.

Word Reading (Grades 1, 2, 3) — Student must correctly identify words in a sight-word list.

Pseudoword Decoding (Grades 1, 2) — Student must correctly identify nonsense words from a list.

Rimes (Grades 1, 2, 3) — Student must pronounce monosyllabic or polysyllabic words omitting specified rimes (e.g. "tent" without the "ent" or "football" without the "oot").

Syllables (Grades 1, 2) — Student must pronounce polysyllabic words omitting specified syllables.

Reading Comprehension (Grades 1, 2, 3) — For some items (and depending on grade level), students must correctly read isolated words and sentences aloud. For other items, students must read passages of text aloud, and then answer open-response comprehension questions.

Passage Fluency (Grades 1, 2, 3) — Students must read passages of text aloud while the teacher monitors oral reading rate and accuracy.

RAN Letters (Grades 2, 3) — Student must quickly identify letters and letter combinations.

RAN Words (Grades 2, 3) — Student must quickly identify words in isolation.

RAN Digits (Grades 2, 3) — Students must quickly identify numbers.

RAN Words and Digits (Grades 2, 3) — Student must quickly identify numbers and words mixed together.

Word Opposites (Grade 2) — Student vocabulary knowledge is demonstrated through matching antonyms.

Word Synonyms (Grades 2, 3) — Student vocabulary knowledge is demonstrated through matching synonyms.

Word Definitions (Grades 2, 3) — Student must demonstrate knowledge of word meanings by generating definitions, synonyms, or other appropriate responses. Rubrics are provided to aid in evaluating student responses.

Multiple Meanings (Grade 3) — Student must provide at least two independent meanings for each word given.
Language(s) tool can
be administered in
English
Score reporting
and test design data
Raw scores can be converted to percentile ranges. Scores are also represented categorically, describing student performance in terms of "emerging" "basic" or "proficient." Reliability measures are provided in the technical manual, and are within expected ranges for students this age. Validity was assessed using intercorrelations of the subtests. The ERDA-2 was also validated using a sample of learning disabled children and matched controls.
Notes Most of these subtests have been adapted from other norm-referenced assessments (such as the WIAT and the TOWK). Some subtests are optional depending on teacher choice and student performance on other subtests. A flowchart is provided at each grade level — if students do poorly on certain subtests, this assessment recommends other subtests that can be administered to examine the students' difficulties in more detail.
 


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Ekwall / Shanker Reading Inventory — 5th Edition (ESRI-5)

Author: James Shanker and Eldon Ekwall
Date Published: 2009


To Purchase this assessment, you must contact the publisher.
Pearson -- Allyn and Bacon
160 Gould st.
Needham Heights, MA 0219
http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0205388531/ref=as_li_tf_tl? ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=9325&creativeASIN=0205388531&linkCode=as2&tag=s06c34-20

617-848-6000  

Cost $62.99
Time to administer Varies (20 - 30 minutes or more depending on assessment given)
Administration Individual
Grades 1, 2, 3, and higher
Cognitive elements
supported
Reading Comprehension
Language Comprehension
Decoding
Cipher Knowledge
Phoneme Awareness
Letter Knowledge
Concepts About Print
Phonological Awareness
Subtests and
skills assessed
San Diego Quick Assessment or Graded Word List — Student must correctly identify words from a graded word list.

Oral and silent reading — There are 4 passages at each level, Preprimer to Grade 9. Students must read aloud one passage, and read silently a second passage. The third and fourth passages are for re-testing at a later date. Oral reading accuracy, oral reading comprehension, and silent reading comprehension are monitored.

Listening comprehension — Teacher reads aloud passages of text at different levels of difficulty, and monitors comprehension with explicit comprehension questions.

Phonemic Awareness — Student must produce and recognize rhyming words, identify initial sounds (phonemes), identify segmented words (blending), and segment words (inserting a clear pause between each phoneme).

Concepts About Print — Student must demonstrate basic understanding of concepts about print mechanics (e.g. point to a word, point to a sentence, etc.)

Letter Knowledge — Student must find the letters on the page that the teacher dictates, and must also point to and identify each letter independently.

Sight Vocabulary — Student must correctly identify common words and phrases.

Phonics — Through a variety of tasks, students must demonstrate knowledge of applied phonics (reading a passage of text aloud), and letter-phoneme relationships (pointing to letters that correspond to certain phonemes).

Structural Analysis — Through a variety of tasks, students must demonstrate knowledge of word parts, inflectional endings, prefixes, suffixes, compound words, and syllabication.

Knowledge of Contractions — Student reads 48 common contractions and then identifies the words that the contraction stands for.

El Paso Phonics Survey — Student pronounces a letter, a rime, and then contracts the letter with the rime (e.g. P AM PAM).

Quick Word List Survey — Student must demonstrate sophisticated word-attack skills by pronouncing multi-syllabic, challenging nonsense words.
Language(s) tool can
be administered in
English
Notes

This is a reading assessment inventory — it is a collection of informal tests that assess a wide range of students' reading abilities. Depending on which tests are administered, these tests can be used as a quick screening device, for placement of students in groups or classes, for a brief assessment, or for a comprehensive individual diagnosis. Included as one of the assessments is a reading interest survey which measures motivation to read.

 


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Expressive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test (EOWPVT)

Author: Rick Brownell
Date Published: 2001


To Purchase this assessment, you must contact the publisher.
Academic Therapy Publications
http://www.academictherapy.com

(800) 444-7249  

Cost $155 for manual and test forms (25 count)
Time to administer 20 minutes
Administration Individual
Grades Pre-K, K, 1, 2, 3, and higher
Cognitive elements
supported
Semantics (Vocabulary and Morphology)
Subtests and
skills assessed
Vocabulary — Students must correctly identify or describe pictures of objects.
Language(s) tool can
be administered in
English and Spanish
Score reporting
and test design data
Norm-Referrenced Test - Raw scores can be converted into standard scores, age-equivalent scores, and percentiles. The Spanish-Bilingual version was normed on 1,050 bilingual individuals and testing was conducted at 150 sites in 50 cities in 17 states across the U.S.
Notes
 


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Fluency: Strategies & Assessments (2nd Edition)

Author: Jerry L. Johns and Roberta L. Berglund
Date Published: 2005


To Purchase this assessment, you must contact the publisher.
Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company
http://www.kendallhunt.com

800-247-3458  

Cost $29.95 for book
Time to administer Varies depending on passages given
Administration Individual
Grades 1, 2, 3
Cognitive elements
supported
Decoding
Subtests and
skills assessed
Oral Reading Fluency — there are 8 passages of text provided in this book (for grades 1-8). Students read aloud from the grade-appropriate passage while the teacher monitors reading accuracy and fluency. Total words read correctly per minute is calculated.
Language(s) tool can
be administered in
English
Score reporting
and test design data
This is a criterion-referenced assessment. Tables for appropriate reading rates for each grade are provided, but there is no normative data for the specific passages provided in this assessment.
Notes This book provides a wealth of high-quality activities that teachers can use to improve reading fluency.
 


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Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests, 4th Edition (GMRT-4)

Author: Walter H. MacGinitie, Ruth k. MacGinitie, Katherine Maria, & Lois G. Dreyer
Date Published: 2002


To Purchase this assessment, you must contact the publisher.
Riverside Publishing Company (division of Houghton Mifflin)
http://www.riverpub.com

(800) 323-9540  

Cost PR ($146 for package of 25) and BR-AR ($122.83 for package of 25)
Time to administer PR and BR (75-100 min); Level 1 and 2 (75 min); Other levels (55 minutes)
Administration Individual or Group
Grades Pre-K, K, 1, 2, 3, and higher
Cognitive elements
supported
Reading Comprehension
Language Comprehension
Cipher Knowledge
Letter Knowledge
Concepts About Print
Phonological Awareness
Subtests and
skills assessed
Literacy Concepts — Student must demonstrate knowledge of print mechanics (e.g. identify a word, identify a letter, text runs left-to-right and top-to-bottom, etc.)

Oral Language Concepts — Students must demonstrate skills in a variety of tasks including phoneme sequencing, phoneme matching, phoneme segmentation, and word length.

Letters and Letter-Sound Correspondences — Student must demonstrate knowledge of letters and must match letters with appropriate sounds (phonemes). In higher-levels, students must demonstrate knowledge of initial consonants and consonant clusters, final consonants and consonant clusters, and vowels.

Listening (Story) Comprehension — Students must listen to a passage of text read aloud, and must answer comprehension questions about the passage.

Basic Story Words — Student must demonstrate understanding of text-related vocabulary.

Word Decoding — Student must accurately identify isolated words in grade word lists.

Comprehension — Student must read a passage of text and correctly answer relevant comprehension questions.

Word Knowledge — Student must select an appropriate word based on given cues.
Language(s) tool can
be administered in
English
Score reporting
and test design data
Raw scores can be converted into national stanines, normal curve equivalents (NCEs), national percentile ranks, grade equivalents, and extended scale scores. About 65,000 students from all part of the country from both public and private schools were tested in teh fall of 1998 and spring of 1999 for the Fourth Edition. Additional score interpretation is available from the Riverside Scoring Service.
Notes Level PR is appropriate for preschool aged children (for students who are about to be taught how to read), Level BR is appropriate for kindergarten students and beginning of Grade 1(designed to provide a benchmark measure at the beginning of Grade 1), and the Levels correspond to grade levels (level 1 to 1st grade and so on). Machine scorable booklets are available from the publisher for a fee.
 


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Gray Diagnostic Reading Tests - 2nd Edition (GDRT-2)

Author: Brian Bryant, J. Lee Wiederholt and Diane Pedrotty Bryant
Date Published: 2004


To Purchase this assessment, you must contact the publisher.
ProEd Publishing Co.
8700 Shoal Creek Blvd.
Austin, TX 78757-6897
http://www.proedinc.com

(800) 897-3202  

Cost $272.00 for complete kit.
Time to administer 50 - 90 minutes
Administration Individual
Grades K, 1, 2, 3, and higher
Cognitive elements
supported
Reading Comprehension
Decoding
Letter Knowledge
Concepts About Print
Semantics (Vocabulary and Morphology)
Phonological Awareness
Subtests and
skills assessed
Letter/Word Recognition — Depending on the level, students either determine whether the item in a box is a letter or word, or they identify the letter by name, or they identify the word.

Phonetic Analysis — Depending on level, students must either identify the first letter in a word, or students must correctly pronounce a nonsense word.

Reading Vocabulary — Depending on level, students either match pictures with written words, or students determine which two words in a set are antonyms.

Meaningful Reading — Depending on level, students must either demonstrate understanding of print mechanics (point to a letter, point to a word, etc.), or students must insert a meaningful word into a sentence that has a word missing (cloze procedure).

Listening Vocabulary — Teacher reads words aloud to the student, and the student must point to an appropriate picture.

Rapid Naming — Students must quickly and accurately identify letters and familiar words.

Phonological Awareness — The student must repeat a word out loud, and then must say the word with a certain phoneme or syllable missing (e.g. "basketball" without "ball" is "basket").
Language(s) tool can
be administered in
English
Score reporting
and test design data
Raw scores can be converted to grade- and age-equivalent scores, standard scores, and percentile ranks. This assessment was normed on a representative sample of 1,018 students across the country in 1999-2000. Reliability (internal and test-retest) scores were found to be above .80, and validity measures were assessed using comparable existing reading assessments (GORT-4, CTPP, and Woodcock PEB-R).
Notes Two forms of the test are available for test-retest applications. A software scoring and report system is available.
 


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Gray Oral Reading Test-4th Edition (GORT-4)

Author: J. Lee Wiederholt and Brian Bryant
Date Published: 2001


To Purchase this assessment, you must contact the publisher.
ProEd Publishing Co.
8700 Shoal Creek Blvd.
Austin, TX 78757-6897
http://www.proedinc.com

(800) 897-3202  

Cost $245.00 for complete kit
Time to administer 15 to 30 minutes
Administration Individual
Grades 2, 3, and higher
Cognitive elements
supported
Reading Comprehension
Decoding
Subtests and
skills assessed
Oral Reading — The student reads a passage of text aloud while the teacher monitors oral reading accuracy, categorizing each type of error or "miscue" (substitution, deletion, etc.). After the student has read the story, the teacher asks a few comprehension questions about the passage.
Language(s) tool can
be administered in
English
Score reporting
and test design data
Raw scores can be converted into standard scores and grade equivalent scores. This assessment was normed on 1,485 students from 18 states. Reliability scores were in the .90 range. Validity measures were assessed using teacher ratings of student reading ability (correlations in the .70 range), and using comparisons with the ITED, the CAT, the GORT-D, the SCREEN, and the DAB-2.
Notes Two forms of the test are available for test-retest applications.
 


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Gray Silent Reading Tests (GSRT)

Author: J. Lee Wiederholt and Ginger Blalock
Date Published: 2000


To Purchase this assessment, you must contact the publisher.
ProEd Publishing Co.
8700 Shoal Creek Blvd.
Austin, TX 78757-6897
http://www.proedinc.com

(800) 897-3202  

Cost $174.00 for complete kit
Time to administer 15 to 30 minutes
Administration Individual or Group
Grades 2, 3, and higher
Cognitive elements
supported
Reading Comprehension
Subtests and
skills assessed
Silent Reading Comprehension — Students read a short passage of text, and then answer 5 multiple-choice comprehension questions.
Language(s) tool can
be administered in
English
Score reporting
and test design data
Raw scores can be converted into age- and grade-equivalent scores, percentile rank, and standard score. A guide is also provided to convert standard scores into criterion-referenced categories (Very Superior, Superior, Above Average, etc.). This test was normed on a sample of 1,400 people. Reliability was demonstrated using alternate forms and time sampling. Validity was assessed using measures of criterion prediction (age prediction, group differentiation, etc.).
Notes There are alternate equivalent forms of this test (Form A and B) to allow for valid repeated testing.
 


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Group Reading Assessment and Diagnostic Evaluation (GRADE)

Author: Kathleen T. Williams
Date Published: 2001


To Purchase this assessment, you must contact the publisher.
Pearson
1330 Avenue of the Americas, 17th Floor, NY, NY 10019
http://www.pearsonschool.com

1-800-321-3106  

Cost $230.50 set for levels P and K; $220.50 set for levels 1,2,3; $323.50 set for levels 4,5,6, M, H, A.
Time to administer 45 minutes to 2 hours (depending on level)
Administration Individual or Group
Grades Pre-K, K, 1, 2, 3, and higher
Cognitive elements
supported
Reading Comprehension
Language Comprehension
Decoding
Cipher Knowledge
Letter Knowledge
Semantics (Vocabulary and Morphology)
Phonological Awareness
Subtests and
skills assessed
Listening Comprehension — Student listens to a sentence read orally by the teacher, and decides which picture best matches that sentence. Different items focus on comprehension of vocabulary, grammar, idiom, inference, and non-literal expressions. (Level P, K, 1)

Picture Matching — Student must determine which two figures are identical. (Level P)

Picture Differences — Student must determine which picture is different from the other three. (Level P)

Verbal Concepts — Student must select the picture that best matches a verbal description. (Level P)

Picture Categories — Student must select the picture of an object which object does not belong in the same semantic category as other objects in the set. (Level P)

Sound Matching — Student must match two words based on beginning or ending sound (phoneme). Pictures are used as cues to help the student remember the comparison words. (Level P, K)

Rhyming — Student must determine whether two words rhyme or not. (Level P, K)

Print Awareness — Student must demonstrate knowledge of print conventions by identifying various elements of print such as capital letter, word, or sentence. (Level K)

Letter Recognition — Student must accurately identify upper-case and lower-case letters. (Level K)

Same and Different Words — For some items, the student must determine which of four alternatives is identical to a target word. For the other items, the student must determine which word is different from the target word. (Level K)

Phoneme-Grapheme Correspondence — Student must identify the letter that given words begin or end with.

Word Reading — Student must match spoken words with written words. Both regular and irregular words are used in this task. (Level 1, 2)

Word Meaning/Vocabulary — Student must match written words with pictures. (Level 1, 2, 3)

Sentence Comprehension — Student reads a sentence with a word missing, and then must decide which word would best complete the sentence. Simple, compound, and complex sentences are used. (Level 1, 2, 3)

Passage Comprehension — Student reads a passage of text and responds to multiple-choice comprehension questions (both explicit and implicit). (Level 1, 2, 3)
Language(s) tool can
be administered in
English
Score reporting
and test design data
This is a norm-referenced assessment — raw scores from each of the subtests can be converted to stanines. Composite and total test raw scores can be converted to stanines, standard scores, percentiles, normal curve equivalencies, and grade equivalencies. Reliability coefficients for alternate form and test-retest were in the .90 range. Concurrent and predictive validity was assessed using a variety of other standardized reading assessments (e.g. TerraNova, Iowa Test of Basic Skills, California Achievement Test, etc.)
Notes Alternate forms of this assessment are provided for each level. The levels of this assessment are as follows: Level P for pre-kindergarten and kindergarten; Level K for kindergarten and first grade, Level 1 for kindergarten, first, and second grade; Levels 2-6 for upper elementary school; Level M for middle school grades 5 through 9; Level H for high school, and Level A for upper high school and post secondary students. Multiple scoring options are available from the publisher, as well as an on-line reporting and management system.
 


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Kindergarten Readiness Test (KRT)

Author: O.F. Anderhalter and Jan Perney
Date Published: 2004


To Purchase this assessment, you must contact the publisher.
Scholastic Testing Service (STS)
480 Meyer Road
Bensenville, IL 60106-1617
http://www.ststesting.com/krt.html

(800) 642-6787  

Cost $50.45 for a starter kit
Time to administer 90 minutes
Administration Individual or Group
Grades K
Cognitive elements
supported
Language Comprehension
Letter Knowledge
Semantics (Vocabulary and Morphology)
Phonological Awareness
Subtests and
skills assessed
Vocabulary — Words are read aloud by the teacher, and the student must select a picture that best goes with that word.

Identifying Letters — Letters are recited by the teacher, and the student must select the correct letter (out of a set of five).

Visual Discrimination — Students must match identical numbers, letters, and patterns from a set of foils.

Phonemic Awareness — Students must match pictures based on either on their rhyme or first phoneme.

Comprehension and Interpretation A short story is read aloud by the teacher, and students must select a picture that best matches the story.
Language(s) tool can
be administered in
English
Score reporting
and test design data
Raw scores can be converted to percentiles or stanines. A guide is also provided to convert scores into criterion-referenced readiness categories (Above Average, Average, etc.). Reliability and validity data were not released by the publisher.
Notes Mathematical Knowledge is also assessed by this test battery.
 


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Lindamood Auditory Conceptualization Test - 3rd Edition (LAC-3)

Author: Patricia C. Lindamood and Phyllis Lindamood
Date Published: 1979


To Purchase this assessment, you must contact the publisher.
ProEd Publishing Co.
8700 Shoal Creek Blvd.
Austin, TX 78757-6897
http://www.proedinc.com

(800) 897-3202  

Cost $206.00 for complete kit
Time to administer 20 - 30 minutes
Administration Individual
Grades K, 1, 2, 3, and higher
Cognitive elements
supported
Phoneme Awareness
Phonological Awareness
Subtests and
skills assessed
Isolated Phoneme Patterns — A set of colored blocks is used in this task. The student is told that each colored block represents a speech sound (phoneme), and the student must represent speech sounds by moving the appropriate block forward. So, if the teachers says "Show me /f/ /a/," the student would push forward the blocks representing those phonemes.

Tracking Phonemes — Students use the blocks from the Isolated Phoneme Patterns task to construct and modify nonsense words. For example, the teacher might arrange the appropriate blocks and say, "If this says "sasp," move the blocks around to show me "slasp."

Counting Syllables — Colored felt pads are placed in front of the student, and the student is told that each pad represents a syllable. The student is told to point to a pad with each syllable in a nonsense word. So, for example, if the teacher says "bifter," the student should point to two different felt pads to indicate that there are two syllables in the nonsense word "bifter."

Tracking Syllables — This task is the same as the Tracking Phonemes task, except with syllables. Each colored felt pad is assigned a syllable, and the student must move and manipulate the pads to change one nonsense word into another nonsense word. So for example, the teacher may arrange the pads and say, "If this says "pretive," then show me "intive."

Tracking Syllables and Phonemes — This is a culmination of the other tasks. The student must appropriately arrange the phoneme blocks on top of the felt pads to represent changes in phonemes and syllables.
Language(s) tool can
be administered in
English and Spanish
Score reporting
and test design data
Raw scores can be converted into standard scores, percentile ranks, and age- or grade-equivalent scores. Reliability was demonstrated using both content and time sampling. Validity was assessed using existing assessments (CTOPP, DAB-3, and TOPAS)
Notes This test uses colored blocks to allow the student to visually present and manipulate representations of phonemes, and felt pads to manipulate the representations of syllables. All words in this assessment are nonsense words.
 


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Metropolitan Achievement Tests, Reading Diagnostic Tests - 8th Edition (MAT-8)

Author: The Psychological Corporation
Date Published: 2002


To Purchase this assessment, you must contact the publisher.
The Psychological Corporation - A Harcourt Assessment Co.
555 Academic Court
San Antonio, TX 78204-2498
http://www.pearsonassessments.com/HAIWEB/Cultures/en-us/Productdetail.htm? Pid=E164C&Mode=summary

800-211-8378  

Cost $57.25 for complete battery
Time to administer Approximately 2 hours for K, approximately 4 hours for 1 and 2
Administration Group
Grades K, 1, 2, 3, and higher
Cognitive elements
supported
Reading Comprehension
Language Comprehension
Cipher Knowledge
Semantics (Vocabulary and Morphology)
Phonological Awareness
Subtests and
skills assessed
At the pre-primer / primer level, there are 2 literacy-related subtests:

Sounds and Print — Questions in this subtest vary in focus; some questions ask students to identify rhyming words, others ask students to choose a picture of an object whose name begins with the same sound (phoneme) as a target word, others ask students to choose a printed word that begins with the same sound (phoneme) as a target word.

Language — Some questions in this subtest focus on basic vocabulary knowledge, others focus on knowledge about the world (e.g. something that flies and gathers twigs for its nest is a ... bird).

At the Primary / Elementary level, there are 5 multiple-choice, literacy-related subtests and one open-ended reading subtest:

Sounds and Print — Questions in this subtest vary in focus; for some questions the student must choose a printed word that contains the same beginning, middle, or ending sound (phoneme) as a target word. For other questions, students must match printed words with a picture.

Reading Vocabulary — Students must demonstrate knowledge of word meaning by choosing synonyms and antonyms of words.

Reading Comprehension — For some items, students must read simple sentences and select a picture that best corresponds with what they read. Other items involve reading a passage and answering comprehension questions.

Language — Students listen to a passage read aloud and answer questions about the passage. Some questions focus on vocabulary or concepts, others focus on syntax and proper grammar.

Spelling — Students identify which word out of a set is spelled correctly.

Reading (Open Ended) — Students must read and respond to short passages of text in an open-response format.
Language(s) tool can
be administered in
English
Score reporting
and test design data
Norms for Fall and Spring are provided. Raw scores can be converted into percentile ranks, stanines, grade equivalent scores, scaled scores, and normal curve equivalent (NCE) scores. Also content cluster performance indicators are available. This assessment was standardized and normed using a very large, nation-wide, representative sample of students. Test-retest and alternate form reliability coefficients were found to be in excess of 0.80 for all reading related subtests on the pre-primer to elementary level tests. Validity was determined using the MAT-7 and the OLSAT.
Notes This assessment battery also includes subtests in math, and the primary / elementary level versions contain subtests for science and social studies.
 


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Observation Survey of Early Literacy Achievement, Revised 2nd Edition

Author: Marie M. Clay
Date Published: 2005


To Purchase this assessment, you must contact the publisher.
Heinemann
http://www.heinemann.com

(800) 541-2086  

Cost $29.50 for book containing reproducible assessments
Time to administer Unknown
Administration Individual
Grades K, 1, 2, 3
Cognitive elements
supported
Decoding
Letter Knowledge
Concepts About Print
Subtests and
skills assessed
Oral Reading — Student reads aloud from passages of text while the teacher monitors accuracy. Instructions for how to take a "running record" and record miscues are provided.

Concepts of Print — Students demonstrate knowledge of 22 print concepts (front of book, back of book, text direction, etc. )

Letter Identification — Student must correctly identify both upper- and lower-case letters.

Word Reading — Student must correctly identify "sight" words from graded lists.

Writing Vocabulary — Student must write as many words as he or she knows.

Hearing and Recording sounds in words — Student must correctly write (encode) words from a dictated passage.
Language(s) tool can
be administered in
English
Score reporting
and test design data
Raw scores are converted to stanines. Norms and reliability measures were established on each subtest separately and are summarized in the book.
Notes This book is broken into two parts — the first part instructs teachers on how to observe and make sense of the reading behavior of children as they read aloud. The second part is a collection of assessment tools that measure more specific skills in the emergent reader (It should be noted that the books that accompany the concepts about print test, "Stones" and "Sand," must be purchased separately). All together, it provides the administrator with the power to customize assessment to the individual. With multiple tests, developmental progress can be monitored. This book, further, offers suggestions to various reading problems.
 


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Oral and Written Language Scales (OWLS)

Author: Elizabeth Carrow-Woolfolk
Date Published: 1995


To Purchase this assessment, you must contact the publisher.
PRO-ED
8700 Shoal Creek Boulevard
Austin, Texas 78757-6897
http://www.proedinc.com/customer/productView.aspx? ID=2210

(800) 897-3202  

Cost $380.00 for complete kit
Time to administer 15 to 25 minutes
Administration Individual or Small Groups
Grades K, 1, 2, 3, and higher
Cognitive elements
supported
Language Comprehension
Subtests and
skills assessed
Listening comprehension — Student must match oral descriptions with pictures.

Oral expression — The student must respond to a verbal description and a picture by either answering a question, completing a sentence, or by generating a complex response.

Written expression — Student's writing samples are evaluated based on handwriting, spelling, punctuation, capitalization, syntax, and composition.
Language(s) tool can
be administered in
English
Score reporting
and test design data
Raw scores can be converted into standard scores, percentile ranks, normal curve equivalent scores (NCEs), stanines, and age-equivalent scores. This assessment was normed on nationwide sample of 1,795 children in 1991. Test-retest reliability measures were found to be in the .80 range; criterion validity was assessed using the Test for Auditory Comprehension of Language (revised), the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (revised), and the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (revised).
Notes Computer software to assist in scoring is available for both PC and Macintosh computers.
 


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Phonemic Awareness in Young Children: A Classroom Curriculum

Author: Marilyn Jager Adams, Barbara Foorman, Ingvar Lundberg and Terri Beeler
Date Published: 1998


To Purchase this assessment, you must contact the publisher.
Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.
P.O. Box 10624
Baltimore, Maryland 21285-0624
http://www.pbrookes.com

(800) 638-3775  

Cost $29.95 for book of activities and reproducible assessments
Time to administer 30 minutes if all assessments are given
Administration Individual or Small Groups
Grades K, 1
Cognitive elements
supported
Phoneme Awareness
Phonological Awareness
Subtests and
skills assessed
Detecting rhymes a test of phonological awareness

Counting syllables a test of phonological awareness

Matching initial sounds — match two pictures that start with the same sound

Counting phonemes in single words — a test of phoneme awareness

Comparing word lengths — decide which word is longer — shorter word is always embedded in longer word (e.g. "cow" and "cowboy")

Representing phonemes with letters — provide a letter that could represent a spoken sound — a test of letter-sound knowledge
Language(s) tool can
be administered in
English
Notes This book is primarily devoted to helping teachers develop a phonemic awareness classroom curriculum. Activities that support phonemic awareness are described, and the book even provides a suggested schedule for when activities should be introduced. The last chapter of the book is devoted to assessing phonological awareness, and each subtest assesses a different aspect of phonological awareness.
 


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Phonemic-Awareness Skills Screening (PASS)

Author: Linda Crumrine and Helen Lonegan
Date Published: 2000


To Purchase this assessment, you must contact the publisher.
ProEd Publishing Co.
8700 Shoal Creek Blvd.
Austin, TX 78757-6897
http://www.proedinc.com

(800) 897-3202  

Cost contact company
Time to administer Approximately 15 minutes
Administration Individual
Grades 1, 2
Cognitive elements
supported
Phoneme Awareness
Phonological Awareness
Subtests and
skills assessed
Rhyming — There are two parts to this subtest — recognizing and producing rhyme. In recognizing rhyme, the student identifies which two of three words rhyme. In producing rhyme, the student simply generates a word that rhymes with a specified word.

Sentence segmentation — After a sentence is read aloud, the student must indicate how many words are contained in the sentence.

Blending — Words are spoken aloud with pauses inserted between syllables, onset-rimes, or phonemes. The student must blend the word together.

Syllable segmentation — Multi-syllable words are spoken aloud for the student, and the student must indicate the number of syllables contained in the word by clapping.

Deletion — A word is spoken aloud to the student, and then the student must pronounce the word omitting a certain segment of the word. The segment to be omitted in each item is either a syllable, the initial phoneme or the final phoneme.

Phoneme isolation — There are three parts to this subtest — in each part, the student must identify a specified phoneme contained in a word. For the first part, the student must identify the initial phoneme; for the second part the student must identify the final phoneme, and for the third part, the student must identify the medial phoneme.

Phoneme segmentation — Words are spoken aloud to the student, and the student must repeat each word with a pause inserted between each phoneme.

Substitution — A word is spoken aloud for the student, and then the student is instructed to replace a specified phoneme with a new phoneme (e.g., replace the /k/ in KID with the phoneme /h/).
Language(s) tool can
be administered in
English
Score reporting
and test design data
This is a criterion referenced assessment in that a cutoff score is provided to indicate whether children in kindergarten and first grades are needing more support developing skills in each area. The cutoff scores were determined using a sample of 166 students.
Notes Guidelines and tips for instructional activities are provided for each of the areas assessed by the subtests to help teachers address instructional needs identified by each subtests within the assessment.
 


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Phonics-Based Reading Test (PRT)

Author: Rick Brownell
Date Published: 2002


To Purchase this assessment, you must contact the publisher.
Academic Therapy Publications
http://www.academictherapy.com/detailATP.tpl? action=search&eqskudatarq=8282-3

(800) 422-7249  

Cost $90 for test kit (manual, stimulus book, 25 student test booklets, in portfolio)
Time to administer 20-30 minutes (for administration and test results)
Administration Individual
Grades 1, 2, 3, and higher
Cognitive elements
supported
Decoding
Cipher Knowledge
Subtests and
skills assessed
Decoding — Student must correctly identify nonsense words.

Fluency — Student must correctly and quickly read aloud passages of text.

Comprehension — After reading passages, students must correctly answer explicit comprehension questions.
Language(s) tool can
be administered in
English
Score reporting
and test design data
Norm-Referenced test - Raw scores can be converted into standard scores, grade-equivalent scores, age-equivalent scores, and percentiles. Sample of 820 children ages 6-12. Correlated with other criterion tests (CAT-5, CTBS/Terra Nova, Gates, ITBS, SAT-9, WIAT).
Notes
 


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Phonological Awareness Literacy Screening - 1-3 (PALS-1-3)

Author: Marcia Invernizzi, Joanne Meier, and Connie Juel
Date Published: 2005


To Purchase this assessment, you must contact the publisher.
University of Virginia
http://pals.virginia.edu

1-888-UVA-PALS  

Cost $95.00 for materials to screen 25 students in fall and spring and an assessment training CD-ROM
Time to administer No time limits, but should be completed within a 2 week window
Administration Individual or Small Groups
Grades 1, 2, 3
Cognitive elements
supported
Reading Comprehension
Decoding
Cipher Knowledge
Phoneme Awareness
Letter Knowledge
Subtests and
skills assessed
Spelling — Student must correctly write increasingly difficult words from dictation.

Letter-Sound Knowledge — Student must provide an appropriate sound (phoneme) that corresponds to each letter

Oral Reading — Student reads appropriate passages of text aloud while the teacher monitors oral reading accuracy and oral reading rate (fluency). Optional comprehension questions are provided for teachers who want to evaluate oral reading comprehension.

For students who have difficulty with the subtests above, more basic reading skills subtests are provided:

Lower-Case Alphabet Recognition — Student must correctly identify lower-case letters.

Letter-Sounds — Students must provide an appropriate sound (phoneme) for each letter or digraph presented.

Concept of Word — Students learn a rhyme by heart, then read the rhyme aloud with the teacher. The student points to words while reading and identifies words that the teacher points out.

Blending — Teacher reads words aloud with a clear pause between each phoneme, and the student must correctly identify the word.

Letter-Sounds in Context — Teacher says words aloud, and the student must provide the first letter or last letter or vowel of each word.
Language(s) tool can
be administered in
English
Score reporting
and test design data
This is a criterion-referenced assessment; no normative data is provided. This assessment is given to students across the state of Virginia every year, and because of this, item and subtest analyses can be conducted every year on many thousands of kindergarten students (over 500,000 students at the time of this writing). Reliability and validity measures have been regularly gathered since 1997, and are well within expected ranges. Predictive validity measures have been conducted using the Stanford-9 (required of students in Virginia) as well as subsequent measures gathered using the PALS 1-3.
Notes A CD-ROM with test-administration training is provided with this assessment.
 


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Phonological Awareness Literacy Screening - K (PALS-K)

Author: Marcia Invernizzi, Connie Juel, Joanne Meier, and Linda Swank
Date Published: 2005


To Purchase this assessment, you must contact the publisher.
University of Virginia
http://pals.virginia.edu

1-888-UVA-PALS  

Cost $75.00 for materials to screen 25 students in the fall and spring and a assessment CD-ROM
Time to administer No time limits, but should be completed within a 2 week window
Administration Individual or Small Groups
Grades K
Cognitive elements
supported
Decoding
Cipher Knowledge
Letter Knowledge
Concepts About Print
Phonological Awareness
Subtests and
skills assessed
Rhyming — Student must match pictures of objects based on whether they rhyme or not.

Beginning Sound Awareness — Student must match pictures based on their initial sound (phoneme).

Lower-Case Alphabet Recognition — Student must correctly identify lower-case letters.

Letter-Sound Knowledge — Student must provide an appropriate sound (phoneme) that corresponds to each letter

Spelling — Student must correctly write simple 3-letter (CVC) words from dictation.

Concept of Word — Students learn a rhyme by heart, then read the rhyme aloud with the teacher. The student points to words while reading and identifies words that the teacher points out.

Word Identification in Isolation — Student must correctly identify regular words from a grade-appropriate list.
Language(s) tool can
be administered in
English
Score reporting
and test design data
This is a criterion-referenced assessment; no normative data is provided. This assessment is given to students across the state of Virginia every year, and because of this, item and subtest analyses can be conducted every year on many thousands of kindergarten students (over 500,000 students at the time of this writing). Reliability and validity measures have been regularly gathered since 1997, and are well within expected ranges. Predictive validity measures have been conducted using the Stanford-9 (required of students in Virginia) as well as subsequent measures gathered using the PALS 1-3.
Notes A CD-ROM with test-administration training is provided with this assessment.
 


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Phonological Awareness Literacy Screening PreK (PALS-PreK)

Author: Marcia Invernizzi, Amie Sullivan, Joanne Meier, and Linda Swank
Date Published: 2004


To Purchase this assessment, you must contact the publisher.
University of Virginia
http://pals.virginia.edu

1-888-882-7257  

Cost $75.00 for materials to screen for 20 students twice
Time to administer 20-25 minutes
Administration Individual
Grades Pre-K
Cognitive elements
supported
Cipher Knowledge
Letter Knowledge
Concepts About Print
Phonological Awareness
Subtests and
skills assessed
Name Writing — Student must draw a picture of himself or herself, and label the picture with his or her name.

Upper-Case Alphabet Recognition — Student must correctly identify upper-case letters.

Lower-Case Alphabet Recognition — Student must correctly identify lower-case letters (only given if student knows 9 or more upper-case letters).

Letter Sounds — Student must provide an appropriate sound (phoneme) that corresponds to each letter (only given if student knows 9 or more upper-case letters).

Beginning Sound Awareness — Student must match pictures based on their initial sound (phoneme).

Print and Word Awareness — Student must demonstrate knowledge of a variety of print concepts.

Rhyme Awareness — Student must match pictures based on rhyme.

Nursery Rhyme Awareness — Teacher reads aloud common, familiar nursery rhymes, and student must provide the very last word in the rhyme when prompted.
Language(s) tool can
be administered in
English
Score reporting
and test design data
Items and testing procedures for each subtest were normed and validated in over 14 schools across Virginia between 2000 and 2004. Test-retest and split-half reliability assessments were well within the expected range. Validity was assessed using a previous version of PALS-PreK, as well as the Test of Awareness of Language Segments, the Child Observation Record, and the Test of Early Reading Ability - 3rd Edition.
Notes This revised version of the PALS-PreK corrects ceiling effects that existed in earlier versions (i.e. some subtests were too easy for most students).
 


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Pre-Literacy Skills Screening (PLSS)

Author: Linda Crumrine and Helen Lonegan
Date Published: 1999


To Purchase this assessment, you must contact the publisher.
ProEd Publishing Co.
8700 Shoal Creek Blvd.
Austin, TX 78757-6897
http://www.proedinc.com

(800) 897-3202  

Cost $53.00 for classroom kit.
Time to administer Approximately 15 minutes
Administration Individual
Grades K, 1
Cognitive elements
supported
Letter Knowledge
Phonological Awareness
Subtests and
skills assessed
Rhyming — There are two parts to this subtest — recognizing and producing rhyme. In recognizing rhyme, the student is shown three pictures of objects and must decide which two object names rhyme. In producing rhyme, the student must generate a word that rhymes with a target word.

Sentence Repetition — A sentence is read aloud to the student, and the student must repeat the sentence verbatim.

Word Naming (accuracy and time) — There are two versions of this subtest. In the first, the student must identify the colors and shapes of figures as quickly as possible. In the second, the student must identify the size and name of pictured objects as quickly as possible.

Blending — Words are spoken aloud with pauses inserted between syllables or onset-rimes, and the student must blend the word together.

Sentence Segmentation — After a sentence is read aloud, and the student must indicate how many words are contained in the sentence.

Letter Naming — The student must identify 8 printed letters of the alphabet (always upper-case).

Syllable Segmentation — Multi-syllable words are spoken aloud for the student, and the student must indicate the number of syllables contained in the word by clapping.

Deletion — A word is spoken aloud to the student, and the student must pronounce the word omitting a certain segment of the word. The segment to be omitted in each item is either a syllable or the initial phoneme.

Multisyllabic Word Repetition — Multisyllabic words are read aloud to the child, and the student must repeat each word 5 times.
Language(s) tool can
be administered in
English
Score reporting
and test design data
This is a criterion referenced assessment in that a cutoff score is provided to indicate whether children in kindergarten and first grades are needing more support developing skills in each area. The cutoff scores were determined using a sample of 142 students.
Notes The Word Naming task is an example of a Rapid Automatic Naming (RAN) assessment.
 


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Pre-Reading Inventory of Phonological Awareness (PIPA)

Author: Barbara Dodd, Sharon Crosbie, Beth McIntosh, Tania Teitzel, & Anne Ozanne
Date Published: 2000


To Purchase this assessment, you must contact the publisher.
The Psychological Corporation - A Harcourt Assessment Co.
http://PsychCorp.com

800-211-8378  

Cost $169.00 (Examiner's manual, Stimuli Book, and 25 Record Forms)
Time to administer 25-30 minutes
Administration
Grades Pre-K, K, 1
Cognitive elements
supported
Cipher Knowledge
Phonological Awareness
Subtests and
skills assessed
Rhyme Awareness — Student must identify non-rhyming word from a set of four words

Syllable Segmentation — Student must repeat words, inserting a clear pause between each syllable (words are 2-5 syllables).

Alliteration Awareness — Student must identify the word that does not begin with the same sound (phoneme) as other words in the same set.

Sound Isolation — Student must identify the first sound (phoneme) in a word.

Sound Segmentation — Student must repeat words, inserting a clear pause between each sound (phoneme).

Letter-Sound Knowledge — Student must identify the sound (phoneme) that corresponds to each letter.
Language(s) tool can
be administered in
English
Score reporting
and test design data
Raw scores can be converted into percentile ranges which can then be used to categorize the student's achievement at Emerging/Below Basic, Basic, or Proficient range of development. Norms were based on representative sample (450) of the U.S. population of children aged 4 -6 years old. Reliability for each subtest and age were in the .80 range. Validity was assessed using the kindergarten and first grade versions of the Early Reading Diagnostic Assessment, Second Edition.
Notes The PIPA is an adaptation of the United Kingdom edition of the Preschool and Primary Inventory of Phonological Awareness (PIPA).
 


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Preschool Language Scale - 4th Edition (PLS-4)

Author: Irla Lee Zimmerman, Violette G. Steiner, and Roberta Evatt Pond
Date Published: 2002


To Purchase this assessment, you must contact the publisher.
The Psychological Corporation - A Harcourt Assessment Co.
http://PsychCorp.com

800-211-8378  

Cost $245.00 for manuals and 15 record forms
Time to administer 20 to 45 minutes depending on age of child
Administration Individual
Grades Pre-K, K, 1
Cognitive elements
supported
Language Comprehension
Subtests and
skills assessed
Auditory comprehension — Items vary; some items measure the child's ability to focus attention for a period of time, but most focus on the child's understanding of vocabulary (picture-word or picture-phrase matching) and following directions (e.g. "show me your wrist").

Expressive communication — Items vary; some items focus on expressive vocabulary, some focus on syntactic knowledge or semantic knowledge, and some measure the child's ability to convey coherent concepts.
Language(s) tool can
be administered in
English
Score reporting
and test design data
Raw scores can be converted into standard scores, percentile ranks and age equivalent scores. This test was standardized on a nationwide, representative sample of 2,400 children. Test-retest reliability is in the .90 range, and the inter-rater reliability correlation was nearly perfect. The validity of this assessment was established using the PLS-3 and the Denver II. Clinical validity studies with children with special needs were also conducted to provide evidence of PLS-4 validity.
Notes This test can be used long before the child enters preschool — some items are appropriate for new-born infants. The tasks are ordered to reflect sequential developmental milestones in language. There are three supplemental measures provided with this assessment: An articulation screener, a language sample checklist, and a caregiver questionnaire.
 


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Process Assessment of the Learner (PAL) — Test Battery for Reading and Writing

Author: Virginia Wise Berninger
Date Published: 2001


To Purchase this assessment, you must contact the publisher.
The Psychological Corporation - A Harcourt Assessment Co.
http://PsychCorp.com

800-211-8378  

Cost $1329.45
Time to administer 45 to 60 minutes, but may vary depending on level and subtests given
Administration Individual
Grades K, 1, 2, 3, and higher
Cognitive elements
supported
Language Comprehension
Decoding
Cipher Knowledge
Phoneme Awareness
Letter Knowledge
Phonological Awareness
Subtests and
skills assessed
Alphabet Writing — Student is instructed to write the alphabet quickly and accurately. There is a 5-minute time limit, and a scoring rubric is used to determine whether letters are written correctly.

Receptive Coding — On some items, student compares two words to determine if they are identical. On other items, student determines whether a letter is contained within a word.

Expressive Coding — Teacher pronounces nonsense words aloud, and the student must write them using appropriate spelling-sound conventions.

RAN-Letters — Student must quickly and accurately identify letters of the alphabet.

RAN-Words — Student must quickly and accurately identify common, high-frequency words.

RAN-Digits — Student must quickly and accurately identify numbers.

RAN-Words and Digits — Student must quickly and accurately identify common, high-frequency words and numbers.

Note-Taking Task A — Teacher reads a simulated lecture aloud to the student, and the student must capture both the main idea of the lecture and also supporting ideas.

Rhyming — Two rhyming words and one non-rhyming word are presented to the student, and the student must determine which word does not rhyme.

Syllables — Student must identify, isolate and delete syllables in words and nonsense-words (e.g. say "hotcake" without "cake").

Phonemes — Student must identify, isolate and delete phonemes in words and nonsense-words (e.g. say "pill" without "ill").

Rimes — Student must isolate and delete rimes from words and nonsense words (e.g. say "weather" without "eth").

Word Choice — Student must decide which spelling of a word (out of three choices) is correct.

Pseudoword Decoding — Student must correctly pronounce pseudowords.

Story Retell — Student must listen to a story, and retell the important details from the story. A few comprehension questions are also given to prompt the student. Responses are open-ended and a rubric is provided to guide scoring responses.

Finger Sense — Student must engage in a variety of tasks involving the fingers (e.g. touch finger and thumb, identify which finger is being touched by the teacher, identify the letter or number that the teacher "writes" on the finger with a wooden stylus).

Sentence Sense — Student must identify which of three similar sentences is correctly written.

Copying — Student must accurately and quickly copy sentences and paragraphs.

Note-Taking Task B — Similar to Note-Taking Task A (see above)
Language(s) tool can
be administered in
English
Score reporting
and test design data
Raw scores on each subtest can be converted to decile scores, so students in each grade can be compared against the performance of a national sample of students. The test was standardized using a representative nation-wide sample of students. The validity of the assessment was established through correlations with other existing assessments (e.g. WIAT-II and PPVT-III)
Notes Different subtests are appropriate for students at different grades, and not all subtests would be given to every student.
 


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Qualitative Reading Inventory —4th Edition (QRI-4)

Author: Lauren Leslie and JoAnne Caldwell
Date Published: 2006


To Purchase this assessment, you must contact the publisher.
Pearson -- Allyn and Bacon
1 Jacob Way
Reading, WA 01867-3999
http://www.ablongman.com

617-848-6000  

Cost $79.95 for book
Time to administer Varies depending on assessments given. This test can be administered over several days.
Administration Individual
Grades K, 1, 2, 3, and higher
Cognitive elements
supported
Reading Comprehension
Decoding
Background Knowledge
Subtests and
skills assessed
List Reading Accuracy — Students identify words from graded word lists. Teacher notes the number of words identified automatically as well as the number of words identified (but not automatically).

Oral Reading Accuracy and fluency — Students read aloud passages of grade-appropriate text while the teacher monitors oral reading accuracy and fluency.

Reading Comprehension — Reading comprehension is measured in a variety of ways in the QRI. During reading, teachers may ask students to "think aloud" while reading the text (describing their thinking as they read the text). After reading each passage of text, comprehension is measured through retelling, explicit comprehension questions, implicit comprehension questions, and "look backs" (reviewing the text again to find information).

Relevant Background Knowledge — Prior to each passage of text, the student is asked a few "concept questions" to determine what level of understanding of relevant concepts they have prior to reading the passage. Students who already have a great deal of background knowledge in an area are expected to have higher levels of comprehension of text in that area.
Language(s) tool can
be administered in
English
Score reporting
and test design data
Raw scores can be converted into reading level scores. Inter-rater reliability measures were found to be in the .98 range; alternate form reliability measures were in the .90 range. Criterion-related validity was assessed using the Woodcock Reading Mastery Test (revised).
Notes This is an informal reading inventory designed to assess reading ability at emergent through middle school levels. Comprehension in this assessment is measured through story retelling and comprehension questions (which are separated into explicit and implicit facts about the story). Before comprehension tests are given, a prior knowledge test is given to assess the childÕs prior knowledge in the subject area. A CD-ROM is included with this book to provide demonstrations for administration and scoring.
 


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Rapid Automatized Naming and Rapid Alternating Stimulus Tests (RAN/RAS)

Author: Maryanne Wolf and Martha Bridge Denckla
Date Published: 2005


To Purchase this assessment, you must contact the publisher.
ProEd Publishing Co.
http://www.proedinc.com

(800) 897-3202  

Cost $142.00 for kit
Time to administer 10 minutes
Administration Individual
Grades K, 1, 2, 3, and higher
Cognitive elements
supported
Letter Knowledge
Subtests and
skills assessed
RAN Objects — Student must correctly identify pictures of objects as rapidly as possible.

RAN Colors — Student must correctly identify color names as rapidly as possible.

RAN Numbers — Student must correctly identify numerals by name as rapidly as possible.

RAN Letters — Student must identify letters by name as rapidly as possible.
Language(s) tool can
be administered in
English
Score reporting
and test design data
Raw scores can be converted into percentile ranks, standard scores, and age- and grade-equivalent scores. A guide is also provided to convert raw scores into criterion-referenced categories (Very Superior, Superior, etc.). This assessment was normed using a national sample of 1,461 students. Inter-rater reliability was in the 0.9 range. Validity was assessed in a variety of ways, including correlation with the CTOPP, age differentiation, and consequent construct validity.
Notes This is one of the few assessments of Rapid Automatic Naming (RAN) that has been implicated in the double-deficit hypothesis.
 


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Reading Analysis and Prescription System (RAPS)

Author: Educational Solutions - MindPlay
Date Published: 2005


To Purchase this assessment, you must contact the publisher.
Educational Solutions - MindPlay
http://www.mindplay.com/Products/RAPS/Educators/GeneralProductDescription/tabid/145/Default.aspx

(520) 888-1800  

Cost contact company
Time to administer Varies depending on student and level
Administration Individual (on computer)
Grades K, 1, 2, 3, and higher
Cognitive elements
supported
Cipher Knowledge
Subtests and
skills assessed
Isolated Sounds — Students hear a voice (generated by the computer) producing isolated sounds. The student must identify what letter corresponds to the sound (phoneme). (Only in Level 1 - see notes).

Spelling — Students hear a voice (generated by the computer) saying real and nonsense words. The student must correctly spell the words dictated by the computer. The computer tracks and categorizes spelling errors, and organizes reports based on competence with different phonics rules (e.g. short vowels, long vowels and dipthongs, consonant digraphs, etc.).
Language(s) tool can
be administered in
English
Score reporting
and test design data
This is a criterion-referenced assessment; no normative data is provided.
Notes This is a computer-based assessment that allows students to be tested on-line. The computer can then generate reports for student, classroom, or school. The skills assessed are generally tested across different levels of difficulty ranging from Level 1 (single sounds or phonemes in isolation) to Level 5 (sounds within multi-syllabic words). A collection of practice exercises for each of the tested domains is provided with RAPS. Other software products are meant to use in conjunction with RAPS — My Reading Coach, and FLRT.
 


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Reading Inventory for the Classroom (RIC) & Tutorial Audiotape Package- 5th Edition

Author: Sutton E. Flynt and Robert B. Cooter
Date Published: 2004


To Purchase this assessment, you must contact the publisher.
Pearson Education -- Merrill Printice Hall
http://www.prenhall.com

800-848-9500  

Cost $39.68 for book (and all needed materials) and tutorial audiotape
Time to administer Unknown
Administration Individual
Grades Pre-K, 1, 2, 3, and higher
Cognitive elements
supported
Reading Comprehension
Language Comprehension
Decoding
Subtests and
skills assessed
Silent reading Comprehension — Student reads passages of text and answers explicit comprehension questions.

Oral Reading and Analysis of Miscues — Student must read a passage of text aloud accurately. Teacher monitors and makes note of any error or "miscue." Guidance about word-attack behaviors, cueing systems, and fluency is provided.

Listening Comprehension — Students listen to short passages read aloud by the teacher and demonstrate comprehension.
Language(s) tool can
be administered in
English
Score reporting
and test design data
This is a criterion-referenced assessment — no normative data is provided. The book provides score sheets that the teacher completes on each student as they administer the inventory.
Notes The inventory begins with an Interest/Attitude interview one for primary-level and one for upper-level students. The assessment portion of the inventory is divided into five forms: A, B, C, D, and E. Each of Forms A, B, C, and D includes three sections: sentences to determine the initial starting point (i.e., passage selection), the reading passages, and matching assessment protocols. Form E is only used with students who read at the upper high school levels. In Forms A, B, C, and D - the section entitled, "Sentences for Initial Passage Selection" ranges from Level 1 through Level 9 (If students do not perform well on the Level 1 sentences, you can administer the Preprimer and Primer passages). All passages are leveled such that Level PP corresponds to beginning first-grade reading difficulty and Level 12 corresponds to 12th-grade difficulty. RIC reading levels can be translated into Guided reading levels. A Spanish version of this assessment is also available.
 


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Ready to Learn: A Dyslexia Screener

Author: Angela K. Fawcett, Rod I. Nicolson, and Ray Lee
Date Published: 2004


To Purchase this assessment, you must contact the publisher.
The Psychological Corporation - A Harcourt Assessment Co.
http://psychcorp.pearsonassessments.com/HAIWEB/Cultures/en-us/Productdetail.htm? Pid=015-8680-901&Mode=summary

800-211-8378  

Cost $269.00 for manual and 25 record forms
Time to administer 30 to 45 minutes, depending on student's age
Administration Individual
Grades Pre-K, K, 1
Cognitive elements
supported
Letter Knowledge
Phonology
Semantics (Vocabulary and Morphology)
Phonological Awareness
Subtests and
skills assessed
Rapid Naming — Student must quickly identify pictures of familiar objects.

Phonological Discrimination — Teacher says pairs of words aloud, and the student must decide if the word pairs are identical (HAT-HAT) or different (HAT-HACK).

Rhyming — Teacher says pairs of words aloud, and the student must decide if the words rhyme or not.

Sound Order — Student listens to recordings of two sounds, played in rapid succession, and must determine which sound came first.

Vocabulary — Student must point to a picture that best represents a dictated word.

Repetition — Student must correctly repeat (parrot) simple sentences.

Letter Naming — Student must correctly identify letters on a page.

First Letter Sound — Student must isolate the first sound (phoneme) in words.
Language(s) tool can
be administered in
English
Score reporting
and test design data
This is both a criterion-referenced and norm-referenced collection of assessments. Raw scores are compared against a criterion for success, and are described categorically — "red" being of greatest concern for dyslexia, "green" being of least concern. Growth norms are also provided to monitor the growth of students over time (relative to a normed sample). Internal consistency and test-retest reliability measures were within expected ranges for young students. The validity of the assessment was determined using other existing early reading assessments (e.g. ESI-R, BSRA, WPPSI-III).
Notes There are 16 subtest in this assessment battery. In addition to those listed above, there are other tests of number knowledge, visual memory, fine motor control, and postural stability.
 


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Receptive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test (ROWPVT)

Author: Rick Brownell
Date Published: 2001


To Purchase this assessment, you must contact the publisher.
Academic Therapy Publications
http://www.academictherapy.com/detailATP.tpl? action=search&eqskudatarq=8220-3&cart=

(800) 422-7249  

Cost $149.00 for complete kit (English and Spanish versions)
Time to administer 15 - 20 minutes for administration and scoring
Administration Individual
Grades Pre-K, K, 1, 2, 3, and higher
Cognitive elements
supported
Semantics (Vocabulary and Morphology)
Subtests and
skills assessed
Vocabulary — Students must choose a picture that best matches a target word given by the teacher.
Language(s) tool can
be administered in
English and Spanish
Score reporting
and test design data
Raw scores can be converted into standard scores, age-equivalent scores, and percentiles. English version -normed nationally with a representative sample of individuals residing in the US. Spanish version - national norms based on a sample of Spanish-bilingual individuals residing in the US. Both are co-normed with the Expressive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test (EOWPVT).
Notes Administration of test done in student's dominant language. Test begins with easy items and progressively becomes more difficult. The Spanish version provides an assessment of an individual's combined Spanish and English hearing vocabulary.
 


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Rigby Reads (Reading Evaluation and Diagnostic System)

Author: Rigby Publishing
Date Published: 2009


To Purchase this assessment, you must contact the publisher.
Harcourt -- Rigby Publishing
http://rigby.hmhco.com/en/readspilot.htm

800-531-5015  

Cost contact company
Time to administer Multiple sessions are encouraged for young children. Overall time varies depending on level and skills assessed
Administration Group
Grades K, 1, 2, 3, and higher
Cognitive elements
supported
Reading Comprehension
Cipher Knowledge
Letter Knowledge
Semantics (Vocabulary and Morphology)
Syntax
Phonological Awareness
Subtests and
skills assessed
Beginning Reader

Visual Discrimination — Student must match pairs of identical upper- and lower-case letters and letter clusters.

Auditory Discrimination — Student must select the picture of an object whose name begins with the same sound (phoneme) as a word spoken by the teacher (e.g. MILK and MAKE). This is a test of phonological awareness.

Letter Recognition — The teacher names a letter, and the student must find that letter in a set of letters.

Sounds-Letters: Consonants — Students must find a written word that begins with the same sound (phoneme) as a picture of on object. This is a test of phonological awareness.

Reading Comprehension: Words — Student must find the word that corresponds to a picture.

Grade 1

Visual Discrimination — Student must match pairs of identical upper- and lower-case letters, letter clusters, and words.

Auditory Discrimination — Student must select the picture of an object whose name begins with the same sound (phoneme) as a word spoken by the teacher (e.g. MILK and MAKE). This is a test of phonological awareness.

Letter Recognition — The teacher names a letter, and the student must find that letter in a set of letters.

Sounds-Letters: Consonants — Students must find a written word that begins with or ends with the same sound (phoneme) as a picture of on object.

Vocabulary in Context — Students read a sentence that is missing a word, and they must choose the best word to complete the sentence.

Reading Comprehension: Words — Student must find the word that corresponds to a picture.

Reading Comprehension: Sentences — Student must find the sentence that best describes a picture.

Reading Comprehension: Stories — Student must read a passage of text and answer explicit and implicit comprehension questions.

Grade 2

Auditory Discrimination — Student must select the picture of an object whose name begins with the same sound (phoneme) as a word spoken by the teacher (e.g. MILK and MAKE). This is a test of phonological awareness.

Visual Discrimination — Student must match pairs of identical upper- and lower-case letters, letter clusters, and words.

Letter Recognition — The teacher names a letter, and the student must find that letter in a set of letters.

Sounds-Letters: Consonants — Students must find a written word that begins with or ends with the same sound (phoneme) as a picture of on object.

Sounds-Letters: Vowels — Students must match two written words based on a common vowel sound.

Vocabulary in Context — Students read a sentence that is missing a word, and they must choose the best word to complete the sentence.

Word Part Clues — Students read a sentence that is missing a word, and they must choose the best word to complete the sentence. The choices provided to fill in the blank differ focus on minor grammatical changes (e.g. TEACHER, TEACHES, TEACHING, or TEACH), and thus, this is a test of syntax knowledge.

Reading Comprehension — Student must find the sentence that best describes a picture. Student must also read passages of text and answer comprehension questions.

Grade 3

Sounds-Letters: Consonants — Students must find a written word that begins with or ends with the same sound (phoneme) as a picture of on object.

Sounds-Letters: Vowels — Students must match two written words based on a common vowel sound.

Vocabulary in Context — Students read a sentence that is missing a word, and they must choose the best word to complete the sentence.

Word Part Clues — Students read a sentence that is missing a word, and they must choose the best word to complete the sentence. The choices provided to fill in the blank differ focus on minor grammatical changes (e.g. TEACHER, TEACHES, TEACHING, or TEACH), and thus, this is a test of syntax knowledge.

Reading Comprehension: Stories — Student must read a passage of text and answer explicit and implicit comprehension questions.
Language(s) tool can
be administered in
English
Score reporting
and test design data
This is a criterion referenced test; no normative data is presented.
Notes Assessments are divided into a "diagnostic test" and an "evaluation test" at each level (except for "beginning reader" which is only a diagnostic. Students who perform well below grade level on the "evaluation test" could be further assessed using the the "diagnostic test." Grading software is available from the publisher. The Rigby Reads assessments are available in grades K - 8. They are purchased in sets of either K-3 or 4-8. Assessments come in two comparable forms (Form A and Form B) so they can be used for pre-test - post-test.
 


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School Readiness Test (SRT)

Author: O.F. Anderhalter and Jan Perney
Date Published: 2004


To Purchase this assessment, you must contact the publisher.
Scholastic Testing Service (STS)
480 Meyer Road
Bensenville, IL 60106-1617
http://www.ststesting.com/srt.html

(800) 642-6787  

Cost $77.05 for a starter kit
Time to administer 90 minutes
Administration Individual or Group
Grades K
Cognitive elements
supported
Language Comprehension
Letter Knowledge
Semantics (Vocabulary and Morphology)
Phonological Awareness
Subtests and
skills assessed
Vocabulary — Words are read aloud by the teacher, and the student must select a picture that best goes with that word.

Identifying Letters — Letters are recited by the teacher, and the student must select the correct letter (out of a set of five).

Visual Discrimination — Students must match identical numbers, letters, and patterns from a set of foils.

Phonemic Awareness — Students must match pictures based on either on their rhyme or first, middle, or last phoneme.

Comprehension and Interpretation A short story is read aloud by the teacher, and students must select a picture that best matches the story.

Developmental Spelling Ability — Words are recited aloud by the teacher, and the students must spell them correctly.

Handwriting — Student must accurately copy letters, numbers, and shapes.
Language(s) tool can
be administered in
English and Spanish
Score reporting
and test design data
Raw scores can be converted to percentiles or stanines. A guide is also provided to convert scores into criterion-referenced readiness categories (High, Above Average, Average, etc.). This test was standardized and normed using a nation-wide sample of 3,071 students. Reliability was determined using part-score techniques. Validity was determined using intercorrelations among the subtests.
Notes This is a test of reading readiness given to students at or before the beginning of 1st grade to determine their aptitude for reading. Mathematical Knowledge is also assessed by this test battery.
 


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Standardized Assessment of Phonological Awareness

Author: Jarrell C. Cassady, Lawrence L. Smith, Diane Bottomley, and Scott Popplewell
Date Published: 2006


To Purchase this assessment, you must contact the publisher.
Professor Garfield
http://www.garfieldu.org

 

Cost Free
Time to administer 15 to 20 Minutes
Administration Individual
Grades K and 1
Cognitive elements
supported
Phoneme Awareness
Phonological Awareness
Subtests and
skills assessed
Rhyme Recognition — Student must determine if two words rhyme with each other.

Rhyme Application — Student must generate a word that rhymes with a target word.

Oddity Tasks: Beginning Sounds — Student must identify which word in a set of spoken words does not begin with the same sound (phoneme) as the other words in the set.

Oddity Tasks: Ending Sounds — Student must identify which word in a set of spoken words does not end with the same sound (phoneme) as the other words in the set.

Oddity Tasks: Middle Sounds — Student must identify which word in a set of spoken words does not contain the same middle sound (phoneme) as the other words in the set.

Blending Body-Codas — Teacher reads words aloud with a clear pause inserted between the body and coda, and the student must correctly identify each word.

Blending Onset-Rimes — Teacher reads words aloud with a clear pause inserted between the onset and rime, and the student must correctly identify each word.

Blending Phonemes — Teacher reads words aloud with a clear pause inserted between each phoneme of the word, and the student must correctly identify each word.

Segmenting Onset-Rimes — The student must say a word aloud with a clear pause inserted between the onset and the rime.

Segmenting Phonemes — The student must say a word aloud with a clear pause inserted between each phoneme in the word.

Phoneme Deletion — The student must repeat a word without saying a certain phoneme in the word (e.g. say "book" without the /b/).

Phoneme Substitution: Beginning Sounds — Student must replace the first phoneme in a word with a different phoneme (e.g. change the /m/ in "man" to a /p/).

Phoneme Substitution: Ending Sounds — Student must replace the last phoneme in a word with a different phoneme (e.g. change the /n/ in "man" to a /t/).

Phoneme Substitution: Middle Sounds — Student must replace the middle phoneme in a word with a different phoneme (e.g. change the /a/ in "man" to a /oo/).

Language(s) tool can
be administered in
English
Score reporting
and test design data
This is a criterion-referenced assessment. No normative data is available.
Notes At the time of this writing (March, 2006) this assessment is not yet available. However, the author states that this assessment will soon be available free of charge through a website called "Professor Garfield" (http://www.garfieldu.org).
 


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Standardized Reading Inventory - 2nd Edition (SRI-2)

Author: Phyllis L. Newcomer
Date Published: 1999


To Purchase this assessment, you must contact the publisher.
ProEd Publishing Co.
8700 Shoal Creek Blvd.
Austin, TX 78757-6897
http://www.proedinc.com

(800) 897-3202  

Cost $291.00 for a classroom kit
Time to administer 15 to 45 minutes (see notes)
Administration Individual or Group
Grades Pre-K, K, 1, 2, 3, and higher
Cognitive elements
supported
Reading Comprehension
Decoding
Semantics (Vocabulary and Morphology)
Subtests and
skills assessed
Vocabulary in Context — Teacher reads a sentence aloud that contains a target vocabulary word. The student must select a word from a set that has the same meaning as the target vocabulary word. This is an optional subtest.

Words in Isolation — Student must accurately read words aloud from graded word lists. Words are "sight words" and are a mix of regular and irregular words.

Reading Errors — Students read graded passages aloud while the teacher notes hesitations and the types of errors made (reversals, omissions, etc.)

Passage Comprehension — After reading a passage of text aloud, students are asked comprehension questions. The types of questions range from factual (explicit) to inferential to predictive.
Language(s) tool can
be administered in
English
Score reporting
and test design data
Raw scores can be converted into age-equivalent scores, grade-equivalent scores, percentile scores, and standard scores. The reliability of this assessment was determined using alternate form comparison and inter-rater reliability. This assessment was validated using existing, comparable reading assessments (GORT, CTOPP, TWRF).
Notes Teachers are also encouraged to monitor other reading behaviors such as head movement, finger pointing, nervousness, attitude, etc. Instructions for how to categorize childrenÕs oral reading miscues are provided with this test. Two forms of the test are available for test-retest applications.
 


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Stanford Achievement Test — 10th Edition (SAT-10)

Author: Harcourt Assessment, Inc
Date Published: 2004


To Purchase this assessment, you must contact the publisher.
Pearson Assessment
http://www.pearsonassessments.com/HAIWEB/Cultures/en-us/Productdetail.htm? Pid=SAT10C

800-232-1223  

Cost $312.00 for complete battery of basic materials
Time to administer Varies depending on level and subtests given
Administration Group
Grades K, 1, 2, 3, and higher
Cognitive elements
supported
Reading Comprehension
Language Comprehension
Decoding
Cipher Knowledge
Semantics (Vocabulary and Morphology)
Subtests and
skills assessed
Sounds and Letters — Students must demonstrate knowledge in a variety of early reading domains, including phonological awareness, orthographic awareness, and alphabetic principle. (SESAT 1 and 2 only)

Word Study Skills — Students must recognize structural elements of printed words and demonstrate knowledge of spelling-sound (phoneme) conventions. (Primary 1 through Intermediate 1)

Word Reading — Student must demonstrate word decoding skills through different tasks, such as matching printed words with spoken words and matching pictures with written words. (SESAT 1 and 2 and Primary 1 only)

Sentence Reading — Student must read and understand predictable sentences, simple sentences, pairs of related sentences, and the student must also demonstrate awareness of onset-rime. (SESAT 2 and Primary 1 only)

Reading Vocabulary — Students must demonstrate knowledge of vocabulary by identifying synonyms, identifying multiple meanings of words, and using context clues to determine the meaning of an unknown word. (Primary 2 through TASK 3)

Reading Comprehension — Students must read passages of text and either (depending upon level) match the text with pictures, complete sentences with missing words (Cloze task), or answer implicit and explicit comprehension questions. Beyond the Primary 2 Level, passages cover a variety of genres (literary, informational, and functional). (Primary 1 through TASK 3)

Language — Different forms of the Language subtest are available for testing word and sentence level skills such as capitalization and punctuation (Form A) or prewriting, composing and editing (Form D). (Primary 1 through TASK 3)

Spelling — Students must choose from among 3 choices the correctly spelled word. (Primary 1 through TASK 3)

Listening Vocabulary — The teacher reads each sentence aloud, and then students must determine the meaning of a vocabulary word used in that sentence. (SESAT 1 through Advanced 2)

Listening Comprehension — Students listen to passages read aloud by the teacher and then must read and answer inferential, explicit, and evaluative comprehension questions about the passage. Passages represent a variety of genres with greater emphasis placed on literary genres at the lower levels.
Language(s) tool can
be administered in
English
Score reporting
and test design data
This is a norm-referenced assessment. Raw scores can be converted into scaled scores, percentile rank scores, stanine scores, grade-equivalent scores, and normal curve equivalent scores. Reliability was assessed using internal-consistency measures, alternate-form measures, and with repeated-measurement. Validity was determined using other standardized assessments (SAT-9, Otis-Lennon, etc.). This assessment was standardized using a nation-wide representative sample of students in 2002.
Notes The first two levels of the SAT-10 (SESAT 1 and SESAT 2) have only one test form, but all other levels have two equivalent forms for valid pre- and post-testing. In addition to the Reading, Spelling, Language, and Listening subtest are described here, the SAT-10 contains other subtests for Mathematics, Science, Environment, and Social Science.
 


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Stanford Diagnostic Reading Test — 4th Edition (SDRT-4)

Author: Bjorn Karlsen and Eric F. Gardner
Date Published: 2005


To Purchase this assessment, you must contact the publisher.
Pearson Assessment
http://www.pearsonassessments.com/HAIWEB/Cultures/en-us/Productdetail.htm? Pid=015-4887-242

800-232-1223  

Cost $97.60
Time to administer Varies depending on level and subtests given
Administration Group
Grades K, 1, 2, 3, and higher
Cognitive elements
supported
Language Comprehension
Semantics (Vocabulary and Morphology)
Phonological Awareness
Subtests and
skills assessed
Sounds (Phonemic Awareness) — Students must select a picture that matches a spoken word dictated by the teacher.

Letters (Phonics) — Students must select a picture that depicts an object whose name begins with or ends with the same sound (phoneme) as a word dictated by the teacher (e.g. teacher says DUCK, and student selects a picture of a dog because both begin with the same phoneme).

Words (Vocabulary) — Students must select a picture that best represents a dictated word or phrase.

Pictures (Fluency) — Students must examine a picture for 3 seconds, and then they must find an identical picture from a set (without referring back to the original picture).

Stories (Comprehension) — The teacher reads aloud passages of text, followed by short questions, and the students must select pictures that best answer those questions.
Language(s) tool can
be administered in
English
Score reporting
and test design data
Raw scores can be converted into scaled scores, percentiles, stanines, normal-curve equivalents, and grade equivalents. Information is also provided to help teachers relate student performance to criterion objectives. Reliability was assessed using internal-consistency measures. Validity was determined using the OLSAT-8
Notes The publisher only sent information about the Pink and Teal Levels of the SDRT-4 (Grades K - 1), so that is all that has been reviewed here. However, other levels of the SDRT-4 are also available for all grades K-12.
 


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Stanford English / Spanish Language Proficiency Test (Stanford ELP / SLP)

Author: Pearson Assessments
Date Published: 2005


To Purchase this assessment, you must contact the publisher.
Pearson Assessments
http://www.pearsonassessments.com/HAIWEB/Cultures/en-us/Productdetail.htm? Pid=015-8429-206

800-232-1223  

Cost
Time to administer 40 to 100 minutes, depending on level
Administration Individual or Group
Grades K, 1, 2, 3, and higher
Cognitive elements
supported
Reading Comprehension
Language Comprehension
Subtests and
skills assessed
Listening — Student must listen to short speeches and indicate their comprehension by responding to or questions (verbal and written) related to the speech.

Writing Conventions — Students select sentences and words that use proper grammar, punctuation, and spelling.

Reading — Students must read a variety of different types of texts (literary, informational, and functional), and respond to a variety of different types of comprehension questions (explicit, interpretive, and vocabulary/idioms).

Writing — Students respond to prompts, and writing is evaluated based on word choice, sentence structure, and overall fluency.

Speaking — Students must read and repeat words, phrases, and sentences; they must complete sentences based on a picture prompt, they must create a story based on picture prompts, and they must respond appropriately to social questions or statements.
Language(s) tool can
be administered in
English and Spanish
Score reporting
and test design data
Raw scores can be converted to scaled scores, and scaled scores can be converted to a criterion category (pre-emergent, emergent, basic, etc.). Reliability assessments were determined from form to form (see notes) and internal consistency ratings. Validity was determined using a variety of other Stanford assessments (SDRT and SAT-9)
Notes There are three forms (A, B, and C) of each level of the English Language Proficientcy Test (ELP) to allow for multiple assessments without test sensitization. The Spanish Language Proficiency Test (SLP) is only available in one form (Form A) at this time.
 


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Stanford Reading First

Author: Pearson Educaiton Inc
Date Published: 2004


To Purchase this assessment, you must contact the publisher.
Pearson Education
http://www.pearsonassessments.com/haiweb/cultures/en-us/productdetail.htm? pid=015-8774-051&Community=EA_PreK-12_SP_RTI

800-232-1223  

Cost $55.65 for reading results package
Time to administer Varies depending on level and subtests given
Administration Group
Grades K, 1, 2, 3, and higher
Cognitive elements
supported
Reading Comprehension
Language Comprehension
Decoding
Semantics (Vocabulary and Morphology)
Subtests and
skills assessed
Sounds and Letters — Students must demonstrate knowledge in a variety of early reading domains, including phonological awareness, orthographic awareness, and alphabetic principle. (SESAT 1 and 2 only)

Word Study Skills — Students must recognize structural elements of printed words and demonstrate knowledge of spelling-sound (phoneme) conventions. (Primary 1 through Intermediate 1)

Word Reading — Student must demonstrate word decoding skills through different tasks, such as matching printed words with spoken words and matching pictures with written words. (SESAT 1 and 2 and Primary 1 only)

Sentence Reading — Student must read and understand predictable sentences, simple sentences, pairs of related sentences, and the student must also demonstrate awareness of onset-rime. (SESAT 2 and Primary 1 only)

Reading Vocabulary — Students must demonstrate knowledge of vocabulary by identifying synonyms, identifying multiple meanings of words, and using context clues to determine the meaning of an unknown word. (Primary 2 through TASK 3)

Reading Comprehension — Students must read passages of text and either (depending upon level) match the text with pictures, complete sentences with missing words (Cloze task), or answer implicit and explicit comprehension questions. Beyond the Primary 2 Level, passages cover a variety of genres (literary, informational, and functional). (Primary 1 through TASK 3)

Listening Vocabulary — The teacher reads each sentence aloud, and then students must determine the meaning of a vocabulary word used in that sentence. (SESAT 1 through Advanced 2)

Speaking Vocabulary — Student must identify and describe objects in a picture (SESAT 1 and 2), and must tell a coherent and elaborate story describing a picture (Primary 1, 2, and 3).

Oral Reading Fluency — Student must accurately identify letters and numbers short words (SESAT 1) without hesitation, or must read sentences and passages accurately, without hesitation and with proper expression (SESAT 2 through Primary 3).
Language(s) tool can
be administered in
English
Score reporting
and test design data
This is a norm-referenced assessment. Raw scores can be converted into scaled scores, percentile rank scores, stanine scores, grade-equivalent scores, and normal curve equivalent scores. Reliability was assessed using internal-consistency measures, alternate-form measures, and with repeated-measurement. Validity was determined using other standardized assessments (SAT-9, Otis-Lennon, etc.). This assessment was standardized using a nation-wide representative sample of students in 2002.
Notes This assessment is comprised of subtests from the Reading and Listening section of the SAT-10, in addition to a teacher-administered Oral Fluency test. This test is available in two equivalent forms (Forms A and B) to allow for valid pre- and post-testing. A guide is provided to help teachers convert scores into criterion categories (Below, At, or Above Grade Level).
 


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STAR Early Literacy Computer-Adaptive Diagnostic Assessment

Author: Renaissance Learning
Date Published: 2005


To Purchase this assessment, you must contact the publisher.
Renaissance Learning, Inc
http://www.renlearn.com

(800) 656-6740  

Cost contact company
Time to administer Less than 10 minutes
Administration Individual
Grades Pre-K, K, 1, 2, 3
Cognitive elements
supported
Reading Comprehension
Decoding
Cipher Knowledge
Knowledge of Alphabetic Principle
Letter Knowledge
Concepts About Print
Background Knowledge
Semantics (Vocabulary and Morphology)
Phonological Awareness
Subtests and
skills assessed
General Readiness (GR) — Student must demonstrate understanding of written word length, position words, words vs. letters, basic numeracy, word matching, word boundaries, shapes and sequences.

Graphophonemic Knowledge (GK) — Student must demonstrate understanding of letter names and sounds, alphabetic letter sequence, and alphabetical order.

Phonemic Awareness (PA) — Student must demonstrate understanding of rhyming words, ability to blend word parts, and phonemes, sound discrimination, oral word length, and ability to identify missing sounds.

Phonics (PH) — Student must demonstrate understanding of long vowels, short vowels, beginning and ending consonants, consonant and vowel replacement, word families (onset and rime), consonant blends, clusters and digraphs.

Comprehension (CO) — Student must demonstrate ability to read and derive meaning from words, sentences, and paragraphs.

Structural Analysis (SA) — Student must demonstrate ability to find words within other words, build words and compound words.

Vocabulary (VO) — Student must demonstrate knowledge of high frequency words, synonyms, and antonyms.
Language(s) tool can
be administered in
English
Score reporting
and test design data
Raw scores are converted into scaled scores, domain and skill score, and a literacy classification.
Notes Self-administered by computer (even for children who are not yet readers) by means of digitized audio directions for the test itself and for every test item. The assessment is designed for repeated administration throughout the school year. All record-keeping and report preparation functions are completely automated. The assessment has attained recognition as a scientifically research-based progress monitoring instrument by the federally-funded National Center for Student Progress Monitoring (NCSPM).
 


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STAR Reading Computer-Adaptive Reading Test

Author: Renaissance Learning, Inc
Date Published: 2006


To Purchase this assessment, you must contact the publisher.
Renaissance Learning, Inc
http://www.renlearn.com

(800) 656-6740  

Cost contact company
Time to administer Less than 10 minutes0-
Administration Individual
Grades 1, 2, 3, and higher
Cognitive elements
supported
Reading Comprehension
Subtests and
skills assessed
Reading Comprehension — Student must read graded passages of text and fill in key missing words from a set of options (modified cloze procedure). Assessment uses dynamic adjustment to increase or decrease the difficulty of the text based on the student's performance.
Language(s) tool can
be administered in
English
Score reporting
and test design data
Norm-referenced. Norming sample included a nationally representative mix of approximately 30,000 students from 269 schools, representing 47 states across the U.S. Students receive scaled scores (SS), grade equivalent (GE) instructional reading level (IRL), percentile rank (PR), normal curve equivalent (NCE), zone of proximal development (ZPD), and diagnostic codes. The STAR Reading test yields a variety of test scores, some of which (instructional reading level - IRL) support criterion-referenced interpretations, and others of which (percentile ranks, grade equivalents, NCR scores) support norm-referenced interpretations.
Notes This assessment requires students to rely on background information, apply vocabulary knowledge, and use active strategies to construct meaning from the assessment text. The assessment is designed for repeated administration throughout the school year. All record-keeping and report preparation functions are completely automated. The assessment has attained recognition as a scientifically research-based progress monitoring instrument by the federally-funded National Center for Student Progress Monitoring (NCSPM).
 


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Stieglitz Informal Reading Inventory — 3rd Edition

Author: Ezra Stieglitz
Date Published: 2002


To Purchase this assessment, you must contact the publisher.
Pearson -- Allyn and Bacon
160 Gould st.
Needham Heights, MA 02194
http://www.ablongman.com

617-848-6000  

Cost 147.42
Time to administer varies (20 - 30 minutes or more depending on student)
Administration Individual
Grades 1, 2, 3, and higher
Cognitive elements
supported
Reading Comprehension
Language Comprehension
Decoding
Phoneme Awareness
Subtests and
skills assessed
Phonemic Awareness — Student must determine whether words rhyme, identify segmented words (spoken by the teacher with a clear pause between each phoneme), identify beginning, middle, and final speech sounds (phonemes), and segment spoken words (inserting a clear pause between each phoneme).

Word Identification in Context — The student reads a whole sentence, but the teacher only monitors the pronunciation of one target word in each sentence. The target words increase in difficulty (similar to a graded word list).

Word Identification in Isolation — Student must correctly identify words presented in graded lists (increasing in difficulty).

Oral Reading Accuracy — Student reads aloud from graded passages of text (increasing in difficulty) while teacher monitors reading accuracy. Passages are narrative and expository.

Reading (or Listening) Comprehension — After reading a passage of text, the student can (at the teacher's discretion) either describe the content of the passage (free recall), or answer comprehension questions.
Language(s) tool can
be administered in
English
Score reporting
and test design data
This is a criterion referenced test; no normative data is presented. Raw scores are converted into an estimation of reading level scores. Alternate form reliability measures were found to be in the .80 range.
Notes There are two equivalent forms of each assessment (Form A and Form B) to allow for multiple assessment without test sensitization. In the specific analysis of comprehension errors, a distinction is drawn among three types of comprehension error — literal errors, interpretive errors, and creative errors. The authors of this assessment state that the graded reading passages and the comprehension questions can be used to assess listening comprehension.
 


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Teaching Beginning Readers: Linking Assessment and Instruction

Author: Jerry L. Johns, Susan Davis Lenski, Laurie Elish-Piper
Date Published: 2002


To Purchase this assessment, you must contact the publisher.
Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company
http://www.kendallhunt.com

800-247-3458  

Cost $75.22
Time to administer Varies depending on assessments given
Administration Individual
Grades K, 1, 2
Cognitive elements
supported
Decoding
Cipher Knowledge
Phoneme Awareness
Letter Knowledge
Phonology
Phonological Awareness
Subtests and
skills assessed
Rhyme Detection — Pairs of words are read aloud to the student, and the student decides if the word pair rhyme.

Phoneme Segmentation — This is a test of phoneme awareness. Words are read aloud to the student, and the student must repeat the word inserting a pause between each phoneme.

Phoneme Deletion and Substitution — Words are read aloud to the student along with instruction about how to manipulate the phonemes in each word.

Auditory Discrimination — This is a test of phonology. Pairs of words are read aloud to the student, and with each pair, the student decides if the pair are identical or different.

Phonics — Words are read aloud to the student, and the student must decide which of 4 pictures represents an item whose name contains either the same first or last phoneme as the word read aloud.

Decoding — The student reads a list of proper names aloud while the teacher monitors accuracy.

Basic Sight Vocabulary — Common words are presented in a list, and the student must identify them correctly.

Caption Reading — Student reads captions under pictures aloud. Oral reading accuracy is assessed.

Passage Reading — Grade 1 and 2 passages are provided for the student to read aloud while the teacher monitors oral reading accuracy and fluency.

Writing — Instructions for a writing prompt are provided along with graded rubrics for evaluating student writing skills.
Language(s) tool can
be administered in
English
Score reporting
and test design data
This is a criterion-referenced assessment — no normative data is provided.
Notes This book provides a wealth of high-quality activities that teachers can use to improve early reading skills.
 


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Tejas Lee

Author: Texas Education Agency, The University of Texas System, & The University of Houston System
Date Published: 2010


To Purchase this assessment, you must contact the publisher.
Brookes Publishing Co.
http://www.brookespublishing.com

(800) 638-3775  

Cost $189.95 for Tejas LEE® El inventario de lectura en español de Tejas (Assessment Kit)
Time to administer Varies depending on level and subtests given.
Administration Individual
Grades K, 1, 2, 3
Cognitive elements
supported
Reading Comprehension
Language Comprehension
Decoding
Cipher Knowledge
Letter Knowledge
Concepts About Print
Phonological Awareness
Subtests and
skills assessed
Conocimiento de la Letra Impresa — Student demonstrates knowledge of text mechanics (e.g. identify a letter, identify a word, point to beginning of text, etc.) (Grade K)

Identificación de las Letras — Student must correctly identify letters of the alphabet by name. (Grade K)

Conocimiento de los Sonidos — Student must demonstrate knowledge of letter-sound (phoneme) correspondence. (Grades K and 1)

Conocimiento Fonológica — Student must demonstrate awareness of speech sounds through a variety of tasks (syllable segmentation, phoneme identification, etc.) (Grades K and 1)

Reconocimiento de las Palabras — Student must correctly identify words in graded word lists. (Grade K)

Comprensión Auditiva — Teacher reads passages aloud to the student, and the student must demonstrate comprehension by answering comprehension questions about the text. (Grades K and 1)

Exactitud de Lectura — Student must accurately read aloud graded passages of text. (Grades 1, 2, and 3)

Proporción de la Fluidez de la Lectura — Student must read connected text accurately, quickly, and without hesitation. (Grades 1, 2, and 3)

Comprensión de la lectura — Student must independently read passages of text and correctly answer comprehension questions related to the text. (Grades 1, 2, and 3)

Dictado — Student must correctly write words from dictation. (Grades 2 and 3)

Accentuación y Diéresis — Student must demonstrate knowledge of proper Spanish writing through application of accents and dieresis. (Grade 3)

Fluidez en el Reconocimiento de las Palabras — Student must quickly and accurately identify words in graded word lists. (Grade 3)
Language(s) tool can
be administered in
Spanish
Notes

Tejas LEE® is a complete solution for assessing and improving the reading and comprehension skills of students who receive primary reading instruction in Spanish. The Tejas LEE® was specifically developed to address the skills and developmental of Spanish literacy and is not simply a Spanish version or a translation of the TPRI®. The Tejas LEE® assists educators in identifying student's strengths and problem areas early and providing them with effective, data-driven instruction. Teachers will get everything they need to diagnose, intervene, and monitor their students.

Results from the Tejas LEE should only be used to examine a student's performance in Spanish and to plan Spanish reading instruction. Reading First approved.

 


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Test of Early Language Development - Third Edition (TELD-3)

Author: Wayne Hresko, D. Kim Reid, and Donald Hammill
Date Published: 1999


To Purchase this assessment, you must contact the publisher.
ProEd Publishing Co.
8700 Shoal Creek Blvd.
Austin, TX 78757-6897
http://www.proedinc.com

(800) 897-3202  

Cost $158.00 for complete kit.
Time to administer 15 - 40 minutes depending on child's age and ability
Administration Individual
Grades Pre-K, K, 1, 2
Cognitive elements
supported
Language Comprehension
Subtests and
skills assessed
Receptive Language — The student must demonstrate receptive language comprehension through a variety of tasks. Some items involve following simple instructions (e.g. stand up and touch your nose), but most involve identifying pictures or words based on a prompt from the examiner (e.g. "Point to the child that is first in line" "Which word goes with mother — baby or tree?")

Expressive Language — The student must demonstrate expressive language skills through a variety of tasks. Some tasks involve picture naming, others involve using a rubric to score a student's verbal descriptions of events or interests.
Language(s) tool can
be administered in
English
Notes Items within each subtest are broken down into semantic items and syntax items, so some items depend on the student's background knowledge and vocabulary to answer (e.g. the student points to the picture that depicts what the examiner describes), and others depend on the student's appreciation for how proper sentences are constructed (e.g. the student determines if a sentence "sounds right"). Two forms of the test are available for pre- and post-test applications.
 


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Test of Early Reading Ability-3rd Edition (TERA-3)

Author: D. Kim Reid, Wayne Hresko, and Donald Hammill
Date Published: 2002


To Purchase this assessment, you must contact the publisher.
ProEd Publishing Co.
8700 Shoal Creek Blvd.
Austin, TX 78757-6897
http://www.proedinc.com

(800) 897-3202  

Cost $288.00 for a classroom kit.
Time to administer 15 to 30 minutes
Administration Individual
Grades Pre-K, K, 1, 2, 3
Cognitive elements
supported
Letter Knowledge
Concepts About Print
Subtests and
skills assessed
Construction of meaning — Student demonstrates awareness of print, knowledge of environmental print, categorical vocabulary (see notes), and reading comprehension.

Alphabet knowledge — Student must correctly identify letters of the alphabet.

Conventions — Student demonstrates knowledge of print concepts by interacting with a book and answering questions (e.g. front of book, direction of text, etc.)
Language(s) tool can
be administered in
English
Score reporting
and test design data
Raw scores can be converted into standard scores, and percentiles. This assessment tool was normed on national sample of 1,454 children in 15 states. Reliability measures are in the .90 range, and validity measures, assessed using the Basic School Skills Inventory, were found to be in the .55 range.
Notes Examiners no longer have to prepare their own items that require the use of company logos. All pictures have been drawn in color to present a more appealing look to children. Categorical vocabulary in this assessment consists of identifying that belong to a semantic category. Part of the alphabet knowledge subtest score is determined by oral reading accuracy. Two forms of the test are available for test-retest applications. Software for scoring is available from the publisher.
 


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Test of Kindergarten/First Grade Readiness Skills (TKFGRS)

Author: Karen Gardner Codding
Date Published: 1987


To Purchase this assessment, you must contact the publisher.
Psychological and Educational Publications, Inc.
P.O. Box 520
Hydesville, CA 95547-0520
http://www.psych-edpublications.com/readiness.htm#tkfgrs

800-523-5775  

Cost $70 for complete kit.
Time to administer 20 minutes
Administration Individual
Grades K, 1
Cognitive elements
supported
Reading Comprehension
Decoding
Letter Knowledge
Subtests and
skills assessed
Letter knowledge — This subtest consists of four separately scored assessments: upper- and lower-case letter matching, letter identification, complete a sequence of letters, and write letters from dictation.

Phonetic identification — Student must verbalize phonetic sounds.

Word identification — Student must correctly identify high-frequency words in graded lists.

Story comprehension — Student must read and answer specific questions about a passage.

Word writing — Student must correctly write words from dictation.

Language(s) tool can
be administered in
English
Score reporting
and test design data
Raw scores can be converted to age-equivalent scores, standard scores, percentiles, and stanines. Reliability and validity data were not reported by the publisher
Notes Reading readiness is one part of this test — it also tests for arithmetic readiness.
 


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Test of Oral Reading and Comprehension Skills (TORCS)

Author: Morrison F. Gardner
Date Published: 2000


To Purchase this assessment, you must contact the publisher.
Stoelting Co.
https://www.stoeltingco.com/stoelting/2181/1467/1492/Psychological/Test-of-Oral-Reading-and-Comprehension-Skills-TORCS

(630) 860-9700  

Cost $69 for test kit (manual, 15 test booklets, oral reading stories booklet)
Time to administer depends on child's age (ranges from 15-20 min.)
Administration Individual
Grades K, 1, 2, 3, and higher
Cognitive elements
supported
Reading Comprehension
Decoding
Subtests and
skills assessed
Oral Reading — Students must accurately read passages of text aloud.

Comprehension — After reading passages, students must correctly answer explicit comprehension questions.
Language(s) tool can
be administered in
English
Score reporting
and test design data
Norm -Referenced test - correlated to scores from other tests: Wide Range Achievement TestÑThird Edtion(WRAT-3) and many others. Raw scores can be converted into standard scores, grade-equivalent scores, age-equivalent scores, and percentiles.
Notes Oral reading is assessed by reading accuracy - basically a decoding test.
 


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Test of Phonological Awareness Skills (TOPAS)

Author: Phyllis L. Newcomer and Edna Barenbaum
Date Published: 2003


To Purchase this assessment, you must contact the publisher.
ProEd Publishing Co.
8700 Shoal Creek Blvd.
Austin, TX 78757-6897
http://www.proedinc.com

(800) 897-3202  

Cost $120.00 for kit
Time to administer 20 - 30 minutes
Administration Individual
Grades K, 1, 2, 3, and higher
Cognitive elements
supported
Phoneme Awareness
Phonological Awareness
Subtests and
skills assessed
Rhyming — The student must complete a sentence with a word that is both semantically appropriate and which rhymes with a previous target word in the sentence (e.g. "I hurt my KNEE falling out of a _____.").

Incomplete Words — The teacher says a word aloud, deleting a certain phoneme. The student must correctly identify the missing phoneme.

Sound Sequencing — A set of colored blocks is used in this task. The student is told that each colored block represents a speech sound (phoneme), and the student must represent speech sounds in words by arranging the colored blocks appropriately.

Phoneme Deletion — The student must repeat a word out loud, and then must say the word with a certain phoneme missing (e.g. say "cat" without the /k/).
Language(s) tool can
be administered in
English
Score reporting
and test design data
Raw scores can be converted into age- and grade-equivalent scores, percentile scores, and standard scores. This assessment was normed on a nation-wide sample of 926 students. Reliability was demonstrated using inter-rater reliability and time sampling. Validity was assessed using similar existing assessments (e.g. CTOPP, LAC, and DAB-3).
Notes A cassette is provided to help administration of the Sound Sequencing subtest. A similar assessment is available for use with Spanish-speaking students called the Test of Phonological Awareness in Spanish (TPAS).
 


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Test of Phonological Skills in Spanish (TPAS)

Author: Cynthia Riccio, Brian Imhoff, Jan E. Hasbrouck, and G. Nicole Davis
Date Published: 2004


To Purchase this assessment, you must contact the publisher.
ProEd Publishing Co.
8700 Shoal Creek Blvd.
Austin, TX 78757-6897
http://www.proedinc.com

(800) 897-3202  

Cost $91.00 for kit
Time to administer 15 - 30 minutes
Administration Individual
Grades K, 1, 2, 3, and higher
Cognitive elements
supported
Phoneme Awareness
Phonological Awareness
Subtests and
skills assessed
Initial Sounds — Student must determine whether two words begin with the same sound (phoneme).

Final Sounds — Student must determine whether two words end with the same sound (phoneme).

Rhyming Words — Student must determine if two words rhyme.

Deletion — The student must repeat a word out loud, and then must say the word with a certain phoneme or syllable missing (e.g. "bienvenido" without "bien").
Language(s) tool can
be administered in
English
Score reporting
and test design data
Raw scores can be converted into age- and grade-equivalent scores and percentile ranks. This assessment was normed using a nationwide sample of 1,033 students from across the country. Various Spanish dialects were represented in the sample. Reliability was demonstrated using inter-rater reliability and time sampling. Validity was assessed using similar existing assessments (e.g. CTOPP).
Notes A similar assessment is available for use with English-speaking students called the Test of Phonological Awareness (TOPAS).
 


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Test of Reading Comprehension — 3rd Edition (TORC-3)

Author: Virginia Brown, Donald Hammill, and J. Lee Wiederholt
Date Published: 1995


To Purchase this assessment, you must contact the publisher.
ProEd Publishing Co.
8700 Shoal Creek Blvd.
Austin, TX 78757-6897
http://www.proedinc.com

(800) 897-3202  

Cost $239.00 for a classroom kit
Time to administer 30 minutes
Administration Individual or Group
Grades 2, 3
Cognitive elements
supported
Reading Comprehension
Semantics (Vocabulary and Morphology)
Syntax
Subtests and
skills assessed
General vocabulary — Three words that have something in common are presented and the student must choose two additional words (from a set of four alternatives) that would go with the first three.

Syntactic similarities — Student must identify two sentences from a set of five that have the same meaning but different syntax.

Paragraph reading comprehension — Student must read a paragraph and answer explicit comprehension questions.

Sentence sequencing — Five sentences are presented out of order, and the student must rearrange them to make sense.

Reading the directions of schoolwork — The student must read and follow simple instructions (see notes).
Language(s) tool can
be administered in
English
Notes The reading directions of schoolwork subtest requires that the student demonstrate some competence in specific skills — in addition to being able to read the instructions, the child must be able to accomplish each task such as: "In each box, underline the words that go together," and "draw a line under the little word in each bigger word." In addition to the subtests described above, there are three other subtests in this battery of skills which are tangentially related to reading skills — a mathematics vocabulary test, a science vocabulary test, and a social studies vocabulary test.
 


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Test of Silent Word Reading Fluency (TOSWRF)

Author: Nancy Mather, Donald D. Hammill, Elizabeth A. Allen, and Rhia Roberts
Date Published: 2004


To Purchase this assessment, you must contact the publisher.
ProEd Publishing Co.
http://www.proedinc.com

(800) 897-3202  

Cost $147.00 for kit
Time to administer 5 minutes
Administration Individual or Group
Grades 1, 2, 3, and higher
Cognitive elements
supported
Decoding
Subtests and
skills assessed
Word Reading Fluency — Unrelated words are strung together on lines without any space between them, and the student must quickly mark the word boundaries of as many words as possible in 3 minutes. For example, the student would indicate the word boundaries of "ofgoliketwobig" by inserting slash marks in the appropriate places — "of/go/like/two/big."
Language(s) tool can
be administered in
English
Score reporting
and test design data
Raw scores can be converted into standard scores, percentile ranks, age- and grade-equivalent scores. This assessment was normed on a nation-wide sample of 3,592 students in grades 1 - 12. Reliability was demonstrated using alternate forms and time sampling. Validity was assessed using existing comparable assessments (e.g. WJ-R, WISC-III).
Notes There are alternate equivalent forms of this test (Form A and B) to allow for valid repeated testing.
 


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Test of Word Reading Efficiency (TOWRE)

Author: Joseph Torgesen, Richard Wagner, and Carol Rashotte
Date Published: 1999


To Purchase this assessment, you must contact the publisher.
ProEd Publishing Co.
8700 Shoal Creek Blvd.
Austin, TX 78757-6897
http://www.proedinc.com

(800) 897-3202  

Cost $193.00 for a classroom kit.
Time to administer 5 to 10 minutes
Administration Individual
Grades 1, 2, 3, and higher
Cognitive elements
supported
Decoding
Cipher Knowledge
Subtests and
skills assessed
Sight Word Efficiency — Student must quickly identify common words from leveled lists.

Phonemic Decoding Efficiency — The student must quickly identify nonsense words as quickly as possible. Items increase in difficulty.
Language(s) tool can
be administered in
English
Score reporting
and test design data
Raw scores can be converted into percentiles, standard scores, and age- and grade-equivalent scores. Normed on a representative nationwide sample of more than 1,500 students. Reliability coefficients were in the .85 to .90 range, and validity measures are available from the publisher.
Notes List reading fluency has been found to be highly correlated with passage-reading fluency.
 


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Texas Primary Reading Inventory

Author: Texas Education Agency, The University of Texas System, & The University of Houston System Date Published: 2010
Date Published: 2010


To Purchase this assessment, you must contact the publisher.
Brookes Publishing Co.
http://www.brookespublishing.com

(800) 638-3775  

Cost $189.95 for the TPRIŽ Benchmarking Kit (K-3) that includes the TPRIŽ Teacher's Guide, Reading Comprehension Story Booklet, Task Cards, and Stopwatch
Time to administer Varies depending on level and subtests given.
Administration Individual or Group
Grades K, 1, 2, 3
Cognitive elements
supported
Reading Comprehension
Language Comprehension
Decoding
Phoneme Awareness
Concepts About Print
Phonological Awareness
Subtests and
skills assessed
Phonemic Awareness — Student must demonstrate awareness of phonemes through a variety of phonological and phoneme awareness tasks (segmentation, deletion, etc.). (Grades K and 1)

Word Reading — Student must correctly identify words in graded lists. (Grades 1, 2, and 3)

Book and Print Awareness — Student must demonstrate knowledge of the function of print and of the characteristics of books and other print materials. (Grade K)

Listening Comprehension — Teacher reads passages aloud to the student, and the student must demonstrate comprehension by answering comprehension questions about the text. (Grades K and 1)

Graphophonemic Knowledge — Student must identify letters by name and demonstrate knowledge of letter-sound (phoneme) correspondence (Grades K and 1), perform word building activities (Grade 1), and spelling activities (Grades 2 and 3).

Reading Accuracy — Student must accurately read aloud graded passages of text. (Grades 1, 2, and 3)

Reading Fluency — Student must read connected text accurately, quickly, and without hesitation. (Grades 1, 2, and 3)

Reading Comprehension — Student must independently read passages of text and correctly answer comprehension questions related to the text. (Grades 1, 2, and 3)
Language(s) tool can
be administered in
English
Score reporting
and test design data
This is a criterion-referenced assessment. No normative data is available. Reliability and validity data are available from the publisher.
Notes

TPRI® is a complete solution for assessing and improving the reading skills of K-3 students who receive primary reading instruction in English. Used in more than 75,000 classrooms across the country, TPRI® helps teachers identify students’ strengths and problem areas early and provide effective, data-informed instruction.

The TPRI® system guides teachers through every step of improving reading outcomes for all students: Screening, Diagnosis, Intervention, and Monitoring. Teachers start with a brief, reliable universal screener that identifies students at risk for reading difficulties. Once screening has identified children who may be at risk, teachers use the Inventory Section to conduct a more in-depth assessment of struggling students' skills in key areas. Teachers then target instruction to their students' needs with the Intervention Activities Guide. With the brief Progress Monitoring Assessments—one kit for emerging readers, one for beginning readers—teachers will monitor student progress in just a few minutes.

 


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The Critical Reading Inventory

Author: Mary DeKonty Applegate, Kathleen Benson Quinn, and Anthony J. Applegate
Date Published: 2004


To Purchase this assessment, you must contact the publisher.
Pearson Education, Inc
http://www.prenhall.com

800-947-7700  

Cost $70.00
Time to administer Varies depending on passages read
Administration Individual
Grades Pre-K, K, 1, 2, 3, and higher
Cognitive elements
supported
Reading Comprehension
Decoding
Subtests and
skills assessed
Word Lists — Student must correctly identify words from increasingly difficult graded lists of regular and irregular words.

Oral Reading — Students read aloud from passages of text while teacher evaluates oral reading accuracy (Optional: teachers can also assess fluency by timing the oral reading).

Oral and Silent Reading Comprehension — After reading each passage (aloud or silently), students must retell the major points of the passage, and they must answer open-ended comprehension questions. The comprehension questions are categorized as "text-based" (explicit), "inference," or "critical response" (evaluative).
Language(s) tool can
be administered in
English
Score reporting
and test design data
This is a criterion-referenced assessment; no normative data is provided.
Notes This assessment comes with an audio CD to provide guidance in administration.
 


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Wechsler Individual Achievement Test - Second Edition (WIAT-II)

Author: David Wechsler
Date Published: 2005


To Purchase this assessment, you must contact the publisher.
The Psychological Corporation - A Harcourt Assessment Co.
http://www.PsychCorp.com

(800)211-8378  

Cost $604.00 for complete kit
Time to administer PreK-K: 45 minutes; Grades 1-6: 90 minutes; Grades 7-16: 1.5 - 2 hours
Administration Individual
Grades Pre-K, K, 1, 2, 3, and higher
Cognitive elements
supported
Reading Comprehension
Language Comprehension
Decoding
Cipher Knowledge
Subtests and
skills assessed
Word Reading — Tasks vary with grade level. Students must correctly identify letters of the alphabet, identify and generate rhyming words, identify the beginning and ending sounds (phonemes) of words, match phonemes with letters, and correctly identify words from a graded list.

Pseudoword Decoding — Students must correctly identify pseudowords in a list using reasonable conventions of English spelling-sound relationships.

Reading Comprehension — Students must match written words with pictures, read short sentences aloud correctly and answer explicit comprehension questions, and read longer passages and answer comprehension questions.

Spelling — Tasks vary with grade level. Students must correctly write dictated letters, letter blends, and words.

Written Expression — Tasks vary with grade level. Students must quickly and accurately write the alphabet and dictated words. They must also combine simple sentences and generate new, grammatically correct sentences, and write a short paragraph or essay.

Listening Comprehension — Students must choose a picture that best matches a word or a sentence, and they must generate a word that matches a picture and oral description.

Oral Expression — Students must demonstrate word fluency, repeat sentences verbatim, generate reasonable stories from pictures, and generate directions from verbal or visual cues.
Language(s) tool can
be administered in
English
Score reporting
and test design data
Raw scores can be converted to age-equivalent scores, grade-equivalent scores, percentile scores, stanines, and normal curve equivalency scores. This assessment was normed using a nation-wide representative sample of 5,586 individuals. The reliability of the assessment was determined through internal-consistency measures, test-retest measures, and interrater reliability measures. The validity of the assessment was determined using a variety of other published assessments (e.g. WIAT, DAS, PAL-RW, etc.)
Notes The WIAT-II also includes two math subtests — Numerical Operations and Math Reasoning.
 


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Yopp-Singer Test of Phoneme Segmentation

Author: Hallie Yopp
Date Published: 1995


To Purchase this assessment, you must contact the publisher.
In the Journal 'Reading Teacher' (Vol. 49, No. 1. pp 20-29)

 

Cost Free
Time to administer 5 - 10 minutes
Administration individual
Grades Pre-K, K, and 1
Cognitive elements
supported
Phoneme Awareness
Subtests and
skills assessed
Phoneme awareness — The student must repeat individual words, inserting a clear pause between each phoneme in the word.
Language(s) tool can
be administered in
English
Score reporting
and test design data
Scores are given as percent correct — guidelines simply state that children with high scores should be considered to be phonemically aware, and children with low scores need phonemic awareness instruction. Reliability measures were found to be above .85; predictive validity was determined by assessing reading achievement of students in a longitudinal study (7 years) using the Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills as a measure of reading achievement.
Notes This is a quick, inexpensive test of phonemic segmentation ability. It is available for free download from http://www.balancedreading.com/assessment/freeassessments.html
 

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