References and Credits


  • Brandt, R. (1991). Coping with change. Educational Leadership, 48(7), 3.
  • Cuban, L. (1988). Constancy and change in schools (1980s to the present). In P.W. Jackson (Ed.), Contributing to educational change. Berkeley, CA: McCutchan Publishing.
  • Fullan, M. (1982). The meaning of educational change. New York: Teachers' College Press.
  • Goldman, H. (1991, March). Black children get left to fall behind at the starting line. Austin American Statesman, p. H1.
  • Greenwood, P.W., Mann, D., & McLaughlin, M.W. (1975). Federal programs supporting educational change, vol. III: The process of change. Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation.
  • Hall, G.E., & Hord, S.M. (1987). Change in schools: Facilitating the process. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
  • Hord, S.M., Rutherford, W.L., Huling-Austin, L., & Hall, G.E. (1987). Taking charge of change. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
  • James, R. K., & Hord, S. M. (1988). Implementing elementary school science programs. School Science and Mathematics, 88(4), 315-334.
  • Knapp, M. S., & Shields, P. M. (1990). Reconceiving academic instruction for the children of poverty. Phi Delta Kappan, 71(10), 753-758.
  • Orr, M. T. (1987). Keeping students in school. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  • Rogers, E. (1971). Diffusion of innovations. New York: The Free Press.
  • Van Den Berg, R. (1981). Large scale strategies for supporting complex innovations in participating schools. 's Hertogenbosch, The Netherlands: Katholiek Pedogogisch Centrum.


Issues . . . about Change is published and produced quarterly Southwest Educational Development Laboratory (SEDL). This publication is based on work sponsored by the Office of Educational Research & Improvement, U.S. Department of Education under grant number RP91002003. The content herein does not necessarily reflect the views of the department or any other agency of the U.S. government or any other source. Available in alternative formats.

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This issue was written by Shirley M. Hord, Senior Research Associate, Services for School Improvement.

Published in Issues ...about Change Volume 1, Number 1, Realizing School Improvement Through Understanding the Change Process (199001)