References and Credits


  • Boyd, V. (1992). School context: Bridge or barrier to change? Austin, TX: Southwest Educational Development Laboratory.
  • Cohen, M. (1987). Improving school effectiveness: Lessons from research. In Virginia Richardson- Koehler (Senior Editor), Educators' handbook: A research perspective. New York: Longman.
  • Coleman, P., & LaRocque, L. (1988). Reaching out: Instructional leadership in school districts. Burnaby: Simon Fraser University and the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada.
  • Crowson, R.L., & Morris, V.C. (1990). The superintendency and school leadership, Project Report. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign: The National Center for School Leadership.
  • Duttweiler, P.C., & Hord, S.M. (1987). Dimensions of leadership. Austin, Texas: Southwest Educational Development Laboratory.
  • Fullan, M.G. (1991). The new meaning of educational change: Second edition. New York: Teachers College Press, Columbia University.
  • Hord, S.M. (1992). Facilitative leadership: The imperative for change. Austin, TX: Southwest Educational Development Laboratory.
  • Hord, S.M., & Huling-Austin, L. (1986). Effective curriculum implementation: Some promising new insights. The Elementary School Journal, 87(1), 97-115.
  • Hord, S.M., Stiegelbauer, S.M., & Hall, G.E. (1984). How principals work with other change facilitators. Education and Urban Society, 17(1), 89-109.
  • Huberman, A.M., & Miles, M. (1986). Rethinking the quest for school improvement: Some findings from the DESSI study. In A. Lieberman, (Ed.), Rethinking school improvement. New York: Teachers College Press.
  • Levine, D.U., & Lezotte, L.W. (1990). Unusually effective schools: A review and analysis of research and practice. Madison, WI: National Center for Effective Schools.
  • Louis, K.S., & Miles, M.B. (1990). Improving the urban high school: What works and why. New York: Teachers College Press, Columbia University.
  • Manasse, A.L. (1984). Principals as leaders of high performing systems. Educational Leadership, 41(5), 42-46.
  • McLaughlin, M.W. (1987). Learning from experience: Lessons from policy implementation. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 9(2), 171-178.
  • Murphy, J. (1991). The effects of the educational reform movement on departments of educational leadership. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 13(1), 49-65.
  • Murphy, J., & Hallinger, P. (1986). The superintendent as instructional leader: Findings from effective school districts. The Journal of Educational Administration, 24(2), 213-231.
  • Murphy, J., Hallinger, P., & Peterson, K.D. (1985). Supervising and evaluating principals: Lessons from effective districts. Educational Leadership, 43(2), 78-82.
  • Peterson, K.D., Murphy, J., & Hallinger, P. (1987). Superintendents' perceptions of the control and coordination of the technical core in effective school districts. Educational Administration Quarterly, 23(1), 79-95.
  • Pollack, S., Chrispeels, J., Watson, D., Brice, R., & McCormack, S. (1988). A description of district factors that assist in the development of equity schools. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans.
  • Rosenholtz, S. (1989). Teachers workplace: The social organization of schools. New York: Longman.
  • Senge, P. (1990). The fifth discipline: The art and practice of the learning organization. New York: Currency Doubleday.


Issues . . . about Changeis published and produced quarterly Southwest Educational Development Laboratory (SEDL). This publication is based on work sponsored by the Office of Educational Research & Improvement, U.S. Department of Education under grant number RP91002003. The content herein does not necessarily reflect the views of the department or any other agency of the U.S. government or any other source. Available in alternative formats.

The Southwest Educational Development Laboratory (SEDL)is located at 211 East Seventh Street, Austin, Texas 78701; (512)476-6861/(800)476-6861. SEDL is an Equal Employment Opportunity/Affirmative Action Employer and is committed to affording equal employment opportunities to all individuals in all employment matters.

This issue was written by Shirley M. Hord, Senior Research Associate, Services for School Improvement, SEDL; and practicing school leader, Paul Czerwinski, Superintendent, Deweyville ISD, Texas.

Photos © copyright 1997 PhotoDisc.

Published in Issues ...about Change Volume 1, Number 2, Leadership: An Imperative for Successful Change (2000)