References

  • American Association of School Administrators. (1986). Challenges for school leaders. Arlington, VA: American Association of School Administrators.
  • Aplin, N.D. (1984, April). The values guiding the operational practices of a suburban superintendent. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, LA.
  • Avi-Itzhak, T.E., & Ben-Peretz, M. (1987). Principals' leadership styles as change facilitators in curricular related activities. The Journal of Educational Administration, 24(2), 231-247.
  • Barnard, C.I. (1938). The function of the executive. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  • Barnes, L.B., & Kriger, M.P. (1986). The hidden side of organizational leadership. Sloan Management Review, 28(1), 15-25.
  • Bass, B.M. (1960). Leadership, psychology, and organizational behavior. New York: Harper & Brothers.
  • Becker, G., Withycombe, R., Doyel, F., Miller, E., Morgan, D., DeLoretto, L., & Aldridge, R. (1971). Elementary school principals: Beacons of brilliance & potholes of pestilence. Eugene, OR: Center for the Advanced Study of Educational Administration, University of Oregon.
  • Bellon, T. & Beaudry, J. (1992, April). Teachers' perceptions of their leadership roles in site-based decision making. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Francisco, CA.
  • Bennis, W. (1990). Managing the dream: Leadership in the 21st century. Training: The Magazine of Human Resource Development, 27(5), 44-46.
  • Bennis, W. & Nanus, B. (1985). Leaders: The strategies for taking charge. New York: Harper & Row.
  • Beer, M., Eisenstat, R.A., & Spector, B. (1990). Why change programs don't produce change. Harvard Business Review, 68(6), 158-166.
  • Bird, C. (1940). Social psychology. New York: D. Appleton-Century Company.
  • Blumberg, A. & Greenfield, W. (1980). The effective principal: Perspectives on school leadership. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
  • Blumberg, A. & Greenfield, W. (1986). The effective principal: Perspectives on school leadership. 2nd Edition. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
  • Boles, K. & Troen, V. (1992). How teachers make restructuring happen. Educational Leadership, 49 (5) , 53-56.
  • Bossert, S.T., Dwyer, D.C., Rowan, B., & Lee, G.V. (1982). The instructional management role of the principal. Educational Administration Quarterly, 18 (3), 34-64.
  • Boyd, V. (1992). School context: Bridge or barrier to change. Austin, TX: Southwest Educational Development Laboratory.
  • Brookover, W.B. & Lezotte, L.W. (1979). Changes in school characteristics coincident with changes in student achievement. East Lansing, MI: The Institute for Research on Teaching.
  • Burns, J.M. (1978). Leadership. New York: Harper & Row.
  • Cartwright, D. & Zander, A. (1960). Group dynamics — research and theory. Evanston, IL: Row Peterson.
  • Chrispeels, J.A. (1990). Achieving and sustaining school effectiveness: A five year study of change in elementary schools. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Boston, MA.
  • Coleman, P. & LaRoque, L. (1990). Struggling to be 'good enough': Administrative practices and school district ethos. New York: The Falmer Press.
  • Crowson, R.L. (1989). Managerial ethics in educational administration: The Rational Choice Approach. Urban Education, 23(4), 412-435.
  • Crowson, R.L., & Morris, V.C. (1990). The superintendency and school leadership. The National Center for School Leadership Project Report. The National Center for School Leadership: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
  • deGues, A.P., (1988). Planning as learning. Harvard Business Review, 66(2), 70-74.
  • De Pree, M. (1989). Leadership is an art. New York: Doubleday.
  • Duttweiler, P.C. & Hord, S.M. (1987). Dimensions of effective leadership. Austin, TX: Southwest Educational Development Laboratory.
  • Edmonds, R.R. (1979, October). Effective schools for the urban poor. Educational Leadership, 37 (2), 15-24.
  • Etzioni, A. (1961). A comparative analysis of complex organizations. New York: Free Press.
  • Fielder, F.E. (1967). A theory of leadership effectiveness. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company.
  • Feistritzer, C.E. (1986). Profile of teachers in the U. S. Washington D. C.: National Center for Education Information.
  • Feistritzer, C.E. (1988). Profile of school administrators in the U. S. Washington D. C.: National Center for Education Information.
  • Forman, S., & Linney, J. (1988). School-based prevention of adolescent substance abuse: Programs, implementation and future directions. School Psychology Review, 17, 550-558.
  • Foster, W. (1985). Leadership as a critical practice. The Australian Administrator, 6 (2).
  • Fullan, M.G. (1991). The new meaning of educational change. New York: Teachers College Press.
  • Garden, J.T., Casey, A., & Christianson, S.L. (1984). Implementing a prereferral intervention system. Exceptional Children, 51, 377-384.
  • Glasman, N.S. (1984). Student achievement and the school principal. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 6(3), 283-296.
  • Gorton, R.A. & McIntyre, K.E. (1978). The secondary high school principalship. Volume II: The effective principal. Reston, VA: National Association of Secondary School Principals.
  • Greenfield, W.D. (1991, April). The micropolitics of leadership in an urban elementary school. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Chicago, IL.
  • Hallinger, P. & Murphy, J.F. (1986a). The social context of effective schools. American Journal of Education. 94(3), 328-355.
  • Hallinger, P. & Murphy, J.F. (1986b). What's effective for whom? School context and student achievement. Planning and Changing, 16(3) 152-160.
  • Hallinger, P., Bickman, L., & Davis, K. (1990). What makes a difference: School context, principal leadership, and student achievement. Cambridge, MA: The National Center for Educational Leadership, Occasional Paper No. 3, Harvard Graduate School of Education.
  • Halpin, A.W. (1966). Theory and research in administration. New York: Macmillan.
  • Harrington-Lueker, D. (1991). Chelsea Crusader: Diana Lam. The Executive Educator, 13(2), pp. 14- 16.
  • Heck, R.H., Larsen, T.J., & Marcoulides, G.A. (1990). Instructional leadership and school achievement: Validation of a causal model. Educational Administration Quarterly, 26 (2), 94-125.
  • Herman, J.L. (1990). Instructional leadership skills and competencies of public school superintendents: Implications for preparation programs in a climate of shared governance. Paper presented at the Southern Regional Council on Educational Administration Conference, Atlanta, GA.
  • Hencley, S.P. (1973). Situational behavioral approach to the study of educational leadership. In L. C. Cunningham & W.J. Gephart (Eds.), Leadership: The science and art today. (pp. 139-164). Itaska, IL: F.E. Peacock Publishers.
  • Hord, S.M. (1992). Facilitating leadership: The imperative for change. Austin, TX: Southwest Educational Development Laboratory.
  • House, R.J. (1971). A path goal theory effectiveness. Administration Science Quarterly, 16, 321-338.
  • Howey, K.R. (1988). Why teacher leadership? Journal of Teacher Education, 34(1). 28-31.
  • Hoy, W.K. , & Brown, B.L. (1988). Leadership behavior of principals and the zone of acceptance of elementary teachers. The Journal of Educational Administration, 26 (1), 23-38.
  • Hoy, W.K. & Miskel, C.G. (1987). Educational administration: Theory, research, and practice. Third Edition. New York: Random House.
  • Joiner Jr., C.W. (1987). Leadership for change. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger Publishing Company.
  • Kirby, P.C., Paradise, L.V., & King, M.I. (1992). Extraordinary leaders in education: Understanding transformational leadership. Journal of Educational Research, 85 (5), 303-311.
  • Kohan, A. R. (1989, March). Interactions between superintendent leader behavior and locus of control on job satisfaction as perceived by vocational teachers. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of American Educational Research Association, San Francisco, CA.
  • Krug, S.E., Scott, C., & Ahadi, S. (1990). An Experience Sampling Approach to the study of principal instructional leadership I: Results from the Principal Activity Sampling Form. Urbana, IL: The National Center for School Leadership, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
  • Leithwood, K.A. (1992). The move toward transformational leadership. Educational Leadership, 49 (5), 8-12.
  • Leithwood, K.A. & Jantzi, D. (1990). Transformational leadership: How principals can help reform school cultures. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 1 (4), 249-280.
  • Leithwood, K.A. & Montgomery, D.J. (1984, April). Patterns of growth in principal effectiveness. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of American Educational Research Association, New Orleans.
  • Leithwood, K.A. & Steinbach, R. (1991). Indicators of transformational leadership in the everyday problem solving of school administrators. Journal of Personnel Evaluation in Education, 4(3), 221-244.
  • Levin, H.M. (1988). Accelerated schools for at-risk students. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Center for Policy Research in Education, Eagleton Institute of Politics.
  • Lightfoot, S.L. (1983). The good high school. New York: Harper and Row.
  • Mahoney, J. (1990). Do you have what it takes to be a super superintendent? The Executive Educator, 12 (4), 26-28.
  • Manasse, A.L. (1986). Vision and leadership: Paying attention to intention. Peabody Journal of Education, 63(1), 150-173.
  • Mazzarella, J.A. & Grundy, T. (1989). Portrait of a leader. In S.C. Smith & P.K. Piele (Eds.), School leadership: Handbook for Excellence Second Edition. (pp. 9-27). Office of Educational Research and Improvement, Washington, DC: OERI contract OERI -R-86-0003.
  • Mazzarella, J.A. & Smith, S.C. (1989). Leadership Styles. In S.C. Smith & P.K. Piele (Eds.), School Leadership: Handbook for Excellence Second Edition. (pp. 28-52). Office of Educational Research and Improvement, Washington, DC: OERI contract OERI -R-86-0003.
  • Méndez-Morse, S.E. (1991). The principal's role in the instructional process: Implications for at-risk students. Issues. . .about Change, 1(3), Austin, TX: Southwest Educational Development Laboratory.
  • Murphy, J.T. (1988). The unheroic side of leadership: Notes from the swamp. Phi Delta Kappan, 69, 654-659.
  • Murphy, J., Everston, C.M., & Radnofsky, M. L. (1991). Restructuring schools: Fourteen elementary and secondary teachers' perspectives on reform. The Elementary School Journal, 92(2), 135-148.
  • Nickse, R.S. (1977). Teachers as change agents. Washington, D.C.: National Education Association.
  • Niece, R.D. (1989, October). Secondary school principals as instructional leaders: Their past influences and current sources for instructional leadership advice and information. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Ohio Association of Secondary School Administrators, Columbus, OH.
  • Pajak, E.F. & Glickman, C.D. (1989). Dimension of school improvement. Educational Leadership, 46 (8), 61-64.
  • Papalewis, R. (1988). A case study in organizational culture: Administrator's shared values, perceptions, and beliefs. Planning and Change, 19 (3), 158-165.
  • Pedro-Carroll, J.L. & Cowan, E. (1985). The Children of Divorce Intervention Program: An investigation of the effects of a school-based prevention program. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 53.
  • Pejza, J.P. (1985, April ). The Catholic school principal: A different kind of leader. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the National Catholic Educational Association, St. Louis, MO.
  • Pitner, N.J., & Ogawa, R.T. (1981). Organizational leadership: The case of the school superintendent. Educational Administration Quarterly, 17 (2), 45-65.
  • Rosenholtz, S.J. (1987). School success and the organizational conditions of teaching. In J.J. Lane & H.J. Walberg (Eds.), Effective school leadership: Policy and process (pp. 187-218). Berkeley, CA: McCutchan Publishing Corporation.
  • Sarason, S.B. (1982). The culture of the school and the problem of change. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, Inc.
  • Schmuck, R.A., & Schmuck, P.A. (1989). Being a superintendent of a small-town district. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 316 380).
  • Seeley, D.S. (1992, April). Visionary leaders for reforming public schools. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Francisco, CA.
  • Sergiovanni, T.J. (1989). The leadership needed for quality schools. In T.J. Sergiovanni & J. H. Moore (Eds.), Schooling for tomorrow: Directing reforms to issues that count. (pp. 213-226), Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
  • Sergiovanni, T.J. (1990). Adding value to leadership gets extraordinary results. Educational Leadership, 47 (8), 23-27.
  • Shapiro, E.S. (1987). Preventing academic failure. School Psychology Review, 17, 601-613.
  • Sizemore, B.A., Brossard, C.A., & Harrigan, B. (1983). An abashing anomaly: The high achieving predominately black elementary school — Executive summary. Pittsburgh: Pittsburgh University, Department of Black Community Education.
  • Slater, R.O., & Doig, J.W. (1988). Leadership in education: Issues of entrepreneurship. Education and Urban Society, 20(3), 294-301.
  • Slavin, R., Karweit, N.L., & Madden, N.A. (1989). Effective programs for students at risk. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
  • Stata, R. (1989). Organizational learning: The keys to management innovation. Sloan Management Review Reprint Series, 30(3), 63-74.
  • Stogdill, R.M. (1948). Personal factors associated with leadership: A survey of the literature. Journal of Psychology, 25, 35-71.
  • Stogdill, R.M. (1963). Manual for the Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire — Form XII. Columbus: Ohio State University, Bureau of Business Research.
  • Stogdill, R.M. (1974). Handbook of leadership: A survey of theory and research. New York: The Free Press.
  • Thoms, G.H. (1986). Will the real instructional leader please stand up? Peabody Journal of Education, 63 (1), 196-201.
  • Tyack, D.B. & Hansot, E. (1982). Managers of virtue: Public school leadership in America, 1820-1980. New York: Basic Books.
  • Ubben, G.C. & Hughes, L.W. (1987). The principal: Creative leadership for effective schools. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
  • Venezky, R.L., & Winfield, L.F. (1979). Schools that succeed beyond expectations in teaching reading (Tech. Rep. No. 1). Newark, DE: University of Delaware, Studies in Education.
  • Wasley, P.A. (1991). Teachers who lead: The rhetoric of reform and the realities of practice. New York: Teachers College Press.
  • Waugh, R.F. & Punch, K.F. (1987). Teacher receptivity to systemwide change in the implementation stage. Review of Educational Research, 57(3), 237-254.
  • Westley, F. & Mintzberg, H. (1989). Visionary leadership and strategic management. Strategic Management Journal, 10, 17-32.
  • Wilson, R.E. (1980). The anatomy of success in the superintendency. Phi Delta Kappan, 62, 20-21.
  • Wynne, E.A. & McPherson, R.B. (1983, April). Good principals in public and church-related schools: A study in socialization. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of American Educational Research Association, Montreal.


Next Page: Credits & Acknowledgements

Published in Leadership Characteristics that Facilitate Change