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Citation:Williams, D. B. (1998). Parent involvement gender effects on preadolescent student performance. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Diego, CA. ED420401.

Annotation:
The authorÕs purpose is to identify parent variables that influence student achievement and to investigate the effects of parent gender on student achievement and self-concept. Data indicate that parent expectations and out-of-school instructions were the only significant factors. The researcher also found that there are significant differences in ways that mothers and fathers contribute to male and female achievement. The researcher reached these conclusions by analyzing National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS:88) data using a model that identified parent aptitude, instruction, and psychological factors as variables and math and reading achievement tests and composite grades as measures of achievement. The researcher attempted to control for extraneous factors such as socioeconomic status, ethnicity, home language, urbanity, geographic region, family composition, and eighth grade enrollment. This study supports the finding that the involvement of fathers as well as mothers is important for a childÕs achievement, and that out-ofÐschool, parent-directed activities, rather than parent attendance at school activities enhance student achievement.

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