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Citation:Carter, R. S., & Wojtkiewicz, R. A. (2000). Parental involvement with adolescents' education: Do daughters or sons get more help? Adolescence, 35(137), 29-44.

Annotation:
The purpose of this study is to examine whether parents are involved differently with the education of adolescent sons and daughters, and whether there are differences in the students' academic achievement. The study found that parents are more involved with the education of daughters than sons. In four of seven measures used, daughters received more attention than sons. These results were based on a regression analysis of gender and parent involvement variables from the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS:88). The NELS:88 data were collected from a nationally representative sample of over 24,500 eighth graders, their teachers, principals, and parents. The study does not address the parents' motivation for the differential treatment. To gain a better understanding of gender differences in the educational experiences and outcomes of students, more data is needed.

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