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Citation:Baker, A. J. L., & Roth, J. L. (1997). Predictors of parent involvement in an early intervention program: Comparing sites, cohorts, and type of involvement. Applied Behavioral Science Review, 5(2), 199-217.

The researchers examine the effects of the HIPPY program (Home Instruction Program for Preschool Youth), a two-year program "for families with limited formal education and their preschool children." Their results suggested that levels of parent involvement associated with family risk factors, the latter including having more adults in the home, having two parents, not receiving welfare, and having more education. Not associated with levels of involvement were the age and ethnicity of the mother, her fluency in English, and maternal depression. The research took place at two sites; the City A group was mostly African American, and the City B group was multiethnic. Data were analyzed separately according to cohort. These four groups went through similar programs, though the sites and contexts such as ease of transportation to meetings differed. The types of involvement predictors included family risk factors (e.g., single parenthood), family background characteristics (e.g., number of children in the home, child's age and gender), material and literacy environment factors (e.g., parent expectations and learning toy availability), and the extent to which parents had depressive symptoms. Each of these variables was sampled for baseline data using several established measures. After two years of HIPPY involvement, families were interviewed about their level of involvement. The researchers noted that the factors in parents' lives that facilitate involvement on one level may impede involvement on another, and that low levels of parent involvement do not mean the parent is not interested in the child's education. Practitioners may find the involvement predictors useful for considering the populations with which they themselves work. Parent self-reports were used as information for levels of involvement, so we cannot assume from this research that we would find such associations in other groups and settings.

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