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Citation:Bouchard, P., St. Amant, J. C., & Deslandes, R. (1998). Family variables as predictors of school achievement: Sex differences in Quebec. Canadian Journal of Education, 23(4), 390-404.

This study explores gender differences in school achievement outcomes at the secondary level as well as in perceived parent and family influences on school grades. Researchers found that females surpassed males on many achievement outcomes, and that male and female students perceived parental practices differently. Researchers also found that parents generally offer similar affective support to their adolescent sons and daughters for school performance, but suggest some differences in the ways parents socialize their sons and daughters. Participants were 525 students ages 14-16, more girls than boys, in a suburban or rural high school in one region of Quebec. A questionnaire was given to all students who volunteered for the study. On the questionnaire students gave their educational expectations and time spent on homework. Absences from class were also measured. Achievement outcomes included grade point averages. The effects of family characteristics (size, structure, and parent education), parenting style, and parent involvement were investigated. Since the data are student self-reports and grades, and the sample was fairly homogeneous in terms of parent education, the results cannot be generalized to the population of secondary students, though school counselors might find some insights about gender differences to share with parents.

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