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Citation:Kagitcibasi, C., Sunar, D., & Bekman, S. (2001). Long-term effects of early intervention: Turkish low-income mothers and children. Applied Developmental Psychology, 22, 333-361.

This study looks at the long-term effects of an educational early learning home environment in Istanbul, Turkey. Researchers examined preschool settings to determine the long-term effects of four different environments: non-educational child care, educational nursery schools, and two types of home careÐone involving mothers who received the intervention and one in which mothers simply provided home-based care. The results suggested that mother training and an educational preschool environment both had positive effects on cognitive development and grades in language and mathematics. Mother training also had a significant effect on general ability scores. Both interventions (educational preschool and mother training) were effective in cognitive outcomes. In homes in which the mothers took part in the training program there were additional gains, possibly caused by positive changes in the mother herself, which then affected her relationship with the child and family. A total of 280 children from lower income families participated in the study; researchers assigned them randomly to treatment groups. For the intervention researchers adapted the HIPPY ProgramÐHome Instruction Program for Preschool YoungstersÐto provide cognitive awareness and learning activities and supplemented it with group discussions and other parent supports for strengthening home communication skills. They then assessed the children on cognitive skills and grades at the end of each grade level up to age 15 and analyzed data to look for differences that were most likely to result from the preschool environment. The authors indicate that much first year data was lost as a result of computer failure. In almost one-third of homes where parent training did not occur, report cards were lost, so data were incomplete. Regardless, the researchers seemed to have accounted for circumstance and designed a rigorous study that contributes to what communities need to know about quality early care and education.

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