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Citation:Keith, T. Z., Keith, P. B., Quirk, K. J., Sperduto, J., Santillo, S., & Killings, S. (1998). Longitudinal effects of parent involvement on high school grades: Similarities and differences across gender and ethnic groups. Journal of School Psychology, 36(3), 335-363.

Annotation:
This longitudinal study examines the influence of parental involvement on 10th gradersÕ learning. Researchers studied similarities and differences in Grade Point Averages (GPA) across gender and ethnic groups. Researchers adopted T. Z. KeithÕs, et al. (1993) definition of parental involvement that focused on parental aspirations and parent communication about school and school activities. Findings suggest that parental involvement has the same effect on GPA across genders and ethnic groups with the exception of Native Americans. However, due to the small sample size of the Native American students, the researchers report that the results are not reliable and recommend further research in this area. The study used data from the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS) and included the addition of tenth-gradersÕ GPAs as an additional measure of learning. Latent variable structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to determine the extent of the influence of general parental involvement on tenth grade GPAs. The researchers suggest that parent involvement begun in earlier years continues to be important in high school; thus, programs to increase home-school collaboration and parental involvement are important, even to high school students and their parents. Researchers caution that any conclusions drawn from these results must be tempered by the narrow definition of parent involvement. Also, GPAÕs are qualitative measures of school success, which may not generalize to other populations.

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