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Citation:Clark, R. (1993). Homework-focused parenting practices that positively affect student achievement. In N. F. Chavkin (Ed.), Families and schools in a pluralistic society (pp. 85-105). Albany, NY: State University of New York.

Annotation:
The purpose of this study is to clarify parenting practices that support student achievement. The researchers examined practices (behaviors and attitudes) that parents engage in to support their childrenÕs homework endeavors, parenting practices that differentiate parents of high-achieving and low-achieving students, and how parenting practices are affected by specific demographic variables: parentÕs education, family structure (intact vs. mother only), and studentÕs ethnic background. Results indicatedÑas compared to high achieversÑlow achievers tended to be male, with parents more likely to be younger, be employed less often outside the home, have less exposure to college training, be on welfare, earn below 16,000 annually, and have more than two children. Most parents provided a quiet place and regular time to study, sent their children to school regularly, and expected homework to be done. However, academically successful students appeared to have additional supports. ParentsÕ personal efforts to learn and studentsÕ having access to supplemental materials seemed to distinguish high from low achievers. Low achievers were less likely to have parents who work and are home between 3pm and 5pm. Groupings of parenting practices were accomplished through a factor analysis of data collected through questionnaires with a 40% response rate. Achievement rating was based on CTBS/U scores over a two-year period. Students scoring at or below 25% for both years were identified as low achievers while high achievers were those scoring at or above 50% for both years. The authors indicate that in the sample Asians and Blacks were over-represented while Whites and Hispanics were under-represented. In addition, nothing is known about those parents who chose not to respond (60%).

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