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Citation:Tucker, C. M., & Harris, Y. R. (1996). The association of selected parent behaviors with the academic achievement of African-American children and European American children. Child Study Journal, 26(4), 253-277.

Tucker and Harris investigate how selected parent behaviors associate with the academic achievement of children at grades 2, 4, and 8. They also look at the role of racial differences within the findings. They conclude that several parent behaviors are associated with student achievement, and those behaviors differ by student grade level. Their data suggest that the following behaviors are positively related to student success: mothers' expectations at 2nd and 4th grades that students earn average grades; parental use of restrictions as a consequence for unsatisfactory grades at 4th grade; African American fathers' expectations for 4th graderÕs high grades, and frequent praise of 8th graders from mothers and fathers. The researchers recruited 266 African-American children and 414 Euro-American children from the same school system in all three grade levels. They analyzed grade-point averages (GPA) and the Metropolitan Achievement Test scores. Parents self-reported their use of selected behaviors during interviews. Authors report that their findings support school efforts to get parents involved and share specific parent behaviors associated with success. However, student grades are biased measures of achievement, and many parent responses had incomplete information. The families also were not leveled for socioeconomic status and had volunteered for the study. This study does contribute an extended set of parent behaviors for practitioners and researchers to consider when exploring parent involvement.

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