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Citation:Constantine, M. G., & Blackmon, S. M. (2002). Black adolescentsÕ racial socialization experiences: Their relations to home, school and peer self-esteem. Journal of Black Studies, 32(3), 322-335. EJ638569.

Annotation:
This study explores the relationship between parental racial socialization messages and self-esteem among Black American adolescents. The term Òracial socializationÓ refers to messages and strategies used by Black parents to teach their children about Black American culture, prepare them for potential experiences with racism, and promote healthy mistrust of non-Blacks. The authors found that parental messages reflecting pride and knowledge about African American culture were positively associated with Black youthsÕ peer self-esteem. Messages about the relative importance of White institutions and the values and benefits associated with being involved with these institutions were negatively associated with school self-esteem. Data were collected through surveys of 115 middle school students attending a predominantly Black parochial school in the northeast region of the United States. The authors caution that further research is needed to generalize the findings to Black students in public and non-Black majority schools.

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