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Citation:Cooper, H., Lindsay, J. J., & Nye, B. (2000). Homework in the home: How student, family, and parenting-style differences relate to the homework process. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25(4), 464-487.

The purpose of this study is to examine how the differences in parenting styles of helping with homework relates to their children's achievement. Results suggested that an autonomous parenting style that encouraged independent problem solving is associated with higher standardized test scores, high class grades, and more completed homework. It was found that more frequent direct parent involvement was associated with lower student outcomes in test scores, class grades, and completed homework. The data for this study were obtained from surveys of 709 parent-student pairs and 82 teachers in grades 2-12 in three school districts (one metropolitan, one suburban and one rural). Groupings in each class consisted of the student, the parent, and the teacher of that class. The Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program's total battery score was used as the standardized achievement measure, along with teacher assigned grades. The authors examined frequencies of parents using each response category and performed factor analysis and eight multiple regression analyses to predict the parenting style measure. The study had specific results tying different styles of parent involvement to student test scores and grades. The authors suggest that practitioners provide training about autonomous learning and skills for interactive homework to parents. They also suggest that not enough is known about what happens in homes related to homework to be able to uncover effects of specific helping styles and whether student ability and grade level impact the results.

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