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Citation:Simons-Morton, B. G., & Crump, A. D. (2003). Association of parental involvement and social competence with school adjustment and engagement among sixth graders. Journal of School Health, 73(3), 121-126.

The purpose of this study is to identify the factors associated with school adjustment and engagement in middle school. The participants in this study, surveyed at Time 1, were 1,267 sixth graders who were enrolled at one of four middle schools in a single school district; 1,081 of the original sample were again surveyed at Time 2. The majority of the participants were White. The results indicated that boys more so than girls and Blacks more so than Whites showed significantly greater declines in school adjustment from Time 1 to Time 2. In addition, school engagement declined significantly across all groups. It was found that school adjustment and engagement could be predicted by social competence and parental involvement. These results suggest that students decline in their engagement in school during the middle school years, but that parents' involvement may buffer these declines. This sample was comprised of mostly White students and future research, including randomized controlled trials, should test the robustness of these findings with a larger sample of Black and other minority students.

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