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Citation:Kaplan, D. S., Liu, X. R., & Kaplan, H. B. (2000). Family structure and parental involvement in the intergenerational parallelism of school adversity. Journal of Educational Research, 93(4), 235-244. EJ605890.

In this study, researchers examine the impact and similarity of mothersÕ school experiences as early adolescents on the current school experiences of their early adolescent children and the influences of family variables on those experiences. Findings indicated that mothers' negative school experiences are related significantly to the negative experiences of their junior high school children. Results also confirmed some of the ways mothers' negative experiences affect the experiences of their children. Researchers used multigenerational panel data in this causal comparison study to estimate the precursors of the family structure and analyze variables along with their outcomes. The sample consisted of 1,144 mother-adolescent child pairs who were interviewed in the early 1990s. The mothers had also been interviewed by the same questionnaire in the early 1970s. This study could be useful in designing models for parents' involvement in schools.

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