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Citation:Muller, C. (1998). Gender differences in parental involvement and adolescents' mathematics achievement. Sociology of Education, 71(4), 336-356. EJ578476.

The purpose of this research is to analyze how parental involvement in education is related to differences between boysÕ and girlsÕ performance on mathematics tests. It was found that boys' test scores were higher than girls' at each grade in which the tests were administered, but the girls' classroom grades were higher. Using base year and second follow-up of 8th and 10th grade public schools students' National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS:88) study data, this study found that there were only small gender differences in test scores when parents were involved. Parents were involved in significantly different ways with boys and girls, and their involvement changed as students progressed through grade levels. It suggests that parent involvement may contribute to equalizing mathematics opportunities available to girls. It is important to note that this study relied on student reports rather than parent reports about parent involvement, and future research is needed before these results can be generalized.

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