SEDL Southwest Educational Development Laboratory

Issues About Change v8.1 - Launching Professional Learning Communities: Beginning Actions

Annotated Bibliography

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Bullard, C. (1998). Qualified teachers for all California students: Current issues in recruitment, retention, preparation, and professional development. Sacramento, California Research Bureau, California State Library.

    This paper reviews prior research and writing in four areas: teacher recruitment, retention, preparation, and professional development. The author highlights common themes from the literature in these areas and considers policy options.

Croasmun, J., D. Hampton, et al. (1997). Teacher attrition: Is time running out?, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

    This article presents the teacher attrition problem and discusses a number of forces and situations that seem to affect attrition rates, including: salaries, level of education, marital status, tenure, beginning teachers, special education. The article discusses the implications of attrition for the future of public education. The authors also review a number of policy responses to attrition: mentor programs, corporate support, technology, money, recruitment, and alternative certification. Final recommendations by the authors focus on the importance of teacher preparation and support of beginning teachers.

Danin, R. and M. A. Bacon (1999). What teachers like (and don't like) about mandated induction programs. A better beginning: Supporting and mentoring new teachers. M. Scherer. Alexandria, VA, Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

    This article presents results from a study in Colorado that examined how provisionally licensed teachers perceived the state-mandated induction program in their district. Findings indicate that teachers greatly benefited from experiences that helped them adapt to school culture, and from the support of a mentor and administrator.

Darling-Hammond, L. (2000). "Teacher quality and student achievement: A review of state policy evidence." Education Policy Analysis Archives 8(1): 28.

    The study examines the ways in which teacher qualifications and other school inputs are related to student achievement across states. Quantitative studies indicate that measures of teacher preparation and certification are the strongest correlates of student achievement in reading and mathematics. The author examines policies that influence the level of teacher qualifications and explores the implications of these findings for state policy on teacher education, licensing, hiring, and professional development.

Donaldson, M. L. and B. Poon, Eds. (1999). Reflections of first-year teachers on school culture: Questions, hopes, and challenges. New Directions for School Leadership. San Francisco, Jossey-Bass.

    This book contains eight articles that present the experiences of beginning teachers through personal reflection, presentation of individual cases, and analysis of challenges and supports.

Doston, G. A. (1995). Mentoring across culture in teacher education: A cross-cultural perspective for retaining minority students in teacher education. Recruitment and Retention of Minorities in Education, New York, School of Education, State University of New York at Oswego.

    This paper briefly discusses issues relevant to cross-cultural mentoring, that is, when mentor and protege are of different cultural backgrounds. Potential problems, needs of minority proteges, and suggestions for both mentor and protege to foster a successful relationship are presented.

Feiman-Nemser, S., C. Carver, et al., Eds. (1999). Beyond support: Taking new teachers seriously as learners. A better beginning: Supporting and mentoring new teachers. M. Scherer. Alexandria, VA, Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

    This article reviews three elements of a comprehensive system of beginning-teacher induction: support, development, and assessment. The presence of and linkages among these three elements help to improve skills of beginning teachers and encourage continual learning as those teachers continue on in the profession.

Feiman-Nemser, S. and M. B. Parker (1992). Los Angeles mentors: Local guides or educational companions?, National Center for Research on Teacher Learning, College of Education, Michigan State University:

    This report analyzes the Teacher Trainee program and the Mentor Teacher program in California. The Teacher Trainee program allows college graduates without a teaching certificate to be hired at schools, and the Mentor Teacher program constitutes the support system for these teachers. The authors conducted research to gain the perspectives of mentor teachers about their experiences.

Fiedeler, E. E. and Haselkorn, D. (1999). Learning the ropes: Urban teacher induction programs and practices in the United States. Boston: Recruiting New Teachers.

    This work provides an extensive overview of teacher induction programs in urban contexts across the United States. The recent history of teacher induction is provided, along with a discussion of mentoring as key to educational practice. A survey of teacher induction programs across the states is complemented by an in-depth study of ten of the urban programs. Recommendations are offered for subsequent study and practice.

Genzuk, M., M. Lavadenz, et al. (1994). Para-educators: A source for remedying the shortage of teachers for limited English-proficient students, The Journal of Educational Issues of Language Minority Students.

    This paper estimates the number of students in need of bilingual education and discusses the demand and supply of bilingual teachers. The authors propose the idea of helping bilingual teacher assistants become credentialed teachers and presents potential barriers to this strategy.

Gewertz, C. (2000). Demographic challenges ahead for schools, study warns. Education Week.

    This article reports on a new study that analyzes projected demographic trends for the next decade that will affect schools. The report is called "Secondary Schools in a New Millennium" and a summary of it is available at

Haggstrom, G. W., L. Darling-Hammond, et al. (1988). Assessing teacher supply and demand. Santa Monica, The RAND Corporation.

    This report was used to establish data requirements for the Schools and Staffing Survey administered by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). The authors present an analysis of factors that affect the supply of and demand for elementary and secondary school teachers. It describes and justifies a data-collection system for assessing teacher supply and demand. Teacher supply, demand, shortages, and projections are discussed in terms of data indicators.

Hare, D., J. Nathan, et al. (2000). Teacher shortages in the Midwest: Current trends and future issues. Oak Brook, IL, North Central Regional Educational Laboratory:

    This report contains a discussion of teacher supply and demand in the Midwestern states (Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin). The report seeks to address questions regarding how teacher shortage is affecting the region and how to increase the supply (especially in key shortage areas). The authors also reflect on the quality and availability of state-level data.

Heidkamp, A. and J. Shapiro (1999). The elements of a supportive induction program. A better beginning: Supporting and mentoring new teachers. M. Scherer. Alexandria, VA, Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

    This article provides tips for educators who want to build their own strong, school-based induction program.

Huling-Austin, L. (1992). "Research on learning to teach: Implications for teacher induction and mentoring programs." Journal of Teacher Education 43(3): 173-180.

    This article presents results of research on learning to teach and connects these findings to teacher induction and mentoring. Information was gained for this report through the identification and review of previous research on learning to teach. Linkages between knowledge on learning to teach and implications for teacher induction and mentoring focus on four major areas: first-year teacher placement and assignment, teacher induction programs, preparation of mentor teachers, and expectations related to novice teachers.

Ingersoll, R. M. (1999). Teacher turnover, teacher shortages, and the organization of schools, Center for the Study of Teaching and Policy, University of Washington.

    The paper reports results of analysis of data from the Schools and Staffing Survey and its supplement, the Teacher Followup Survey, conducted by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). Findings indicate that school organizational conditions are important factors that affect teacher retention.

Irvine, J. J., Ed. (1997). Critical knowledge for diverse teachers and learners. Washington, D. C., American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education.

    This book contains a collection of articles on teacher preparation and development, teacher practice, and needs of diverse learners. Articles specifically treat preparation of teachers in preservice; perspectives of practicing teachers; teaching from the perspective of Latinas, African Americans, and Asian/Pacific Americans; and perspectives from the standards movement.

Johnston, R. C. and D. Viadero (2000). Unmet promise: Raising minority achievement. Education Week.

    This article reports that current trends indicate student race/ethnic characteristics will be predictors for school success. This achievement gap is present in current analyses of performance among different race/ethnic groups and is expected to grow as the nation's minority populations grow.

Ladson-Billings, G. (2000). "Fighting for our lives: Preparing teachers to teach African American students." Journal of Teacher Education 51(3): 206-214.

    This article discusses the challenges that teacher preparation programs face in assisting teachers in better meeting the needs of African American students. The author discusses the unique African American cultural experience. She also presents teaching strategies for helping prepare teachers of African American students.

Lewis, M. S. (1999). Supply and demand of teachers of color, The Educational Resources Information Center Digests and Publications.

    This report shows the increase of demand for teachers of color based on student enrollment patterns. It also looks at the decrease in the number of teachers of color and briefly discusses recruitment practices that might help fill the gap.

Meier, D. (1995). The power of their ideas: Lessons for America from a small school in Harlem. Boston, Beacon Press.

    A book that presents an urban educator's perspective and advice on how to create innovative public schools that ensure a personal, respectful, and excellent education for all students. Based on the experiences of Central Park East schools in East Harlem, New York.

Montgomery Halford, J. (1999). Easing the way for new teachers. A better beginning: Supporting and mentoring new teachers. M. Scherer. Alexandria, VA, Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

    This article describes how schools should use mentoring to help their new teachers thrive in the classroom.

National Center for Research on Teacher Learning (1993). Findings on learning to teach. East Lansing, MI, National Center for Research on Teacher Learning, College of Education, Michigan State University.

    A short summary of findings from research on the teacher preparation process. Myths about teacher preparation are debunked and explored in six areas: content knowledge, information about diverse cultural groups, mentoring and classroom performance, alternative certification, teacher education program structures, and short-term inservice workshops.

National Commission on Teaching and America's Future (1997). Doing what matters most: Investing in quality teaching. New York, National Commission on Teaching and America's Future.

    A follow-up to the previous year's report, this document revisits the Commission's recommendations, offers new data about how investments in teaching influence student achievement, and provides an overview of the nation's progress toward quality teaching.

National Commission on Teaching and America's Future (1996). What matters most: Teaching for America's future. New York, National Commission on Teaching and America's Future.

    This report provides an update on the status of teaching in the United States, including a discussion of common myths about teaching and the challenges teachers face. NCTAF offers five recommendations for policy action: 1) get serious about standards for students and teachers, 2) reinvent teacher preparation and professional development, 3) improve teacher recruitment and put qualified teachers in every classroom, 4) encourage and reward teacher knowledge and skill, and 5) create schools that are organized for student and teacher success.

National Foundation for the Improvement of Education (1999). Creating a teacher mentoring program.

    This document outlines some issues and questions that practitioners should consider when developing mentor programs. The authors emphasize the importance of collaboration, time for mentoring, confidentiality, and teacher placement. They also outline steps for selecting, training, and supporting mentors; the specific types of support that proteges need from mentors; and how to measure program effectiveness.

Norlander-Case, K. A., T. G. Reagan, et al. (1991). The professional teacher: The preparation and nurturance of the reflective practitioner. San Francisco, Jossey-Bass.

    This book establishes a conception of career professions in democratic society and reflects on the future of the teaching profession if it were built on moral and ethical responsibility. This future vision must be supported by inquiry and reflection within the education community, cohesive educator preparation programs, and educative communities and professional development centers. The authors also emphasize the need to prepare educators with a philosophical grounding in equity and diversity. Finally, the book discusses the kinds of resistance that keep the teaching profession from changing and also presents the stories of four educators as examples of the moral dimensions of the teaching profession.

Odell, S. J. and Huling, L. (2000). Quality mentoring for novice teachers. Indianapolis, IN: Kappa Delta Pi.

    This book proposes a framework for quality mentoring and describes operational practices within each of six framework dimensions. The purpose of the framework is to guide, assess, and develop more fully mentoring as a professional practice. The book maps out how to improve the mentoring process in the initial preparation of teachers, identifying strategies for enhancing the culture of schools for new teachers and presenting vignettes that offer viable methods to prepare experienced teachers for mentoring. The book is a collaborative endeavor of Kappa Delta Pi and the Association of Teacher Educators.

Panel on Novice Teacher Induction Support System (1998). Final report. Austin, Texas State Board for Educator Certification.

    This report provides evidence of the need for a supported teacher induction program in Texas. It reviews the need for mentoring new teachers, the history of previous induction efforts, and a recommended plan for the state.

Reiman, A. J. and Thies-Sprinthall, L. (1998). Mentoring and supervision for teacher development. New York: Longman.

    This book summarizes the current literature related to teacher supervision and mentoring practices. It synthesizes the fields of instructional supervision, adult development, teacher education and mentoring, and ongoing professional development. Supervision, as used in this text, refers to a school-based or school/college-based activity that improves instruction through guided assistance and discourse between adults.

Rutherford, W. L. and S. M. Hord (2000). Urban initiative: Status of teaching. A study of the San Antonio Independent School District, San Antonio, Texas. Austin, National Commission on Teaching and America's Future.

    This report documents results of research that attempted to ascertain the degree to which a large urban district exemplified recommendations established by the National Commission on Teaching and America's Future. Findings are intended to guide the learning and professional development of teachers. The data presented include state policy on Texas teacher preparation and certification, the status of teachers in Texas, the status of teaching in San Antonio Independent School District (recruitment, certification, compensation, attrition, standards), a review of student performance in SAISD, and results of research on the teacher mentoring program in SAISD. An executive summary accompanies the full report.

Southwest Educational Development Laboratory (1994). Teaching for diversity, Austin, Southwest Educational Development Laboratory.

    These proceedings summarize activities at SEDL's 1994 Regional Policy Networkshop. At this conference, Ana Maria Villegas discussed demographic trends, preparing teachers for diversity, increasing the pool of teachers of color, and policy considerations. Villegas also outlined models and strategies for improving the recruitment, preparation, and credentialing of teachers. Jacqueline Jordan Irvine presented the need to restructure teacher education and offered ten essential components for restructuring for diversity.

Southwest Educational Development Laboratory (1994). Teaching for diversity: An update on state activities. Austin, Southwest Educational Development Laboratory:

    This report provides an update of state-level activities related to teacher preparation, recruitment, and credentialing in Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. It also presents strategies these states are using to address diversity in teacher education.

Southwest Educational Development Laboratory (2000). Wanted: Teachers, teachers, and more teachers. 2000 Regional Policy Networkshop, Austin, TX, Southwest Educational Development Laboratory.

    These proceedings summarize activities at SEDL's 2000 Regional Policy Networkshop. Panels on teacher shortage in the Southwestern Region, alternative certification, and teacher mentoring are highlighted.

SRI International. (2000). Preparing and supporting new teachers: A literature review. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education.

    This document is a review of what is known about a series of efforts to improve the teacher workforce. It includes a discussion of teacher preparation, a review of initial certification and alternative certification policies, and an examination of the literature on induction support for new teachers. The review describes the extent and nature of relevant reform initiatives, their defining characteristics, and what is known about their impacts. Major methodological issues are discussed and questions for further research are raised.

Sweeny, B. (n.d.) What's Happening in Mentoring and Induction in Each of the United States?

    A table containing a list of states in the U.S. that have mentoring programs. Web links to more detailed text are also provided when available. Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas are all included in the table.

Sweeny, B. (1994). A new teacher mentoring knowledge base of best practices: A summary of lessons learned from practitioners.

    This summary briefly reviews important issue to consider when setting up a mentoring program. Nine areas are presented: basic assumptions, purpose of mentoring, mentor roles and tasks, selection of mentors, matching mentors and proteges, expectations for mentors and proteges, training, support for mentoring, and context for mentoring.

Texas Center for Educational Research (1999). Texas Teacher Recruitment and Retention Study.

    This summary reviews the teacher shortage problem in Texas and provides an overview of the ways in which schools and other entities have responded to the alleviate the shortage. The summary also discusses teacher retention, presenting statistics and examples of collaborative retention efforts. A list of recommendations are made for statewide efforts to improve and expand teacher recruitment and retention programs.

Texas Education Agency (1994). Texas teacher diversity and recruitment. Austin, Texas Education Agency Office of Policy Planning and Evaluation.

    This report provides an examination of student enrollment and the ethnic and gender distribution of teachers. Current data analysis is presented as well as an historical look at minority participation in the teacher pipeline.

Texas Education Agency (2000). Snapshot '99: 1998-99 School District Profiles, Texas Education Agency.

    Snapshot is a Texas Education Agency publication that provides general information about the characteristics of public school districts in Texas. Published since 1987-88, Snapshot presents a wide variety of information in a consistent format from year to year. Topics include a variety of demographic information about students and staff, as well as financial information about school district budgets, property values, and state financial assistance. Items showing student performance on state administered assessment instruments and college admission tests are also included. The publication examines statewide data, including historical trends, and provides data for each school district and for selected groupings of districts. Other summarized data such as the Education Service Center region statistics are also provided.

Texas Education Agency Policy Analysis and Evaluation Division (1995). Texas teacher retention, mobility, and attrition. Austin, Texas Education Agency:

    This report focuses on issues related to teacher supply including retention, mobility, and attrition. Data available on Texas schools is used to identify historical trends, teacher characteristics, school conditions, and induction and retention of teachers.

U.S. Department of Education (1998). Promising practices: New ways to improve teacher quality. Washington D. C., U.S. Department of Education.

    This report provides overviews of state programs that support quality teaching. Six types of programs are featured: recruitment, teacher preparation, licensing and certification, induction of beginning teachers, professional development, and teacher accountability and incentives. Three induction programs are described. First is Delaware's Mentoring Program that links mentoring for all beginning teachers to professional teaching standards. Second is the Peer Assistance and Review Program in Columbus, Ohio that combines an intern program for newly hired teachers and an intervention program for experienced teachers who are having difficulty. Third is the Cadre Project in Omaha, Nebraska, which is a graduate induction program for beginning teachers and a professional renewal program for experienced teachers.

Wicker, J. (1999). Going, going, gone: A handbook of practical responses to the Texas teacher recruitment and retention problem. Austin, Texas Association of School Boards.

    This report states that there is a teacher shortage problem in Texas. The state and federal programs that exist to address teacher shortage are reviewed and recruitment strategies are offered. The teacher retention problem is also highlighted with suggested ways to increase retention in Texas schools.

Zeichner, K. M. (1993). Educating teachers for cultural diversity. East Lansing, National Center for Research on Teaching and Learning.

    This report addresses the need to help teachers acquire the attitudes, knowledge, skills, and dispositions necessary to work effectively with a diverse student population. The author presents the context of growing demographic differences between teachers and students and summarizes the knowledge and strategies that currently exist regarding the issue. Alternative approaches to teacher preparation are presented as ways to address the issues, including biography, attitude change, field experience, cultural knowledge, and instructional strategies. A discussion of the different ways that teachers learn to teach and conclusions end the report.

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