Advancing Research, Improving Education
SEDL's Reading Resources
Cognitive Framework of Reading Reading Assessment Database Short Papers Reading First Links
Table of Contents


14 Cognitive Elements of Reading
- 1. Reading Comp.
- 2. Language Comp.
- 3. Background
- 4. Linguistic
- 5. Phonology
- 6. Syntax
- 7. Semantics
- 8. Decoding
- 9. Cipher
10. Lexical
- 11. Phoneme
- 12. Alphabetic
- 13. Letter
- 14. Concepts

Reading Assessment Techniques

Research Evidence

Using the Framework


PDF version

Purchase a print copy

Related Resources
Glossary of reading terms

Instructional Resources - Literary References

Instructional Resources - Instructional Activities

Lexical Knowledge

Visual Map of the Cognitive Elements of Reading Some words cannot be easily sounded out because they do not follow the conventional letter-phoneme relationships--a child who attempts to sound out words like one and two will not arrive at the correct pronunciation. For these "exception" words, the child will need additional information about correct pronunciation.

Find out More

Looking for Professional Development?

Check out SEDL's professional development offerings for Addressing College- and Career-Ready (CCR) Standards for English Language Arts

Copyright ©2014 SEDL
About SEDL | Contact SEDL | Support SEDL | Terms of Use