Texas Comprehensive Center

Previous Work
October 2005 through September 2012

These resources were published under a previous TXCC funding; therefore, information contained therein may have changed and is not updated.

English Language Learners Materials

The State of Current Practice in the Selection and Use of Linguistic Accommodations for English Language Learners: Review of Texas Focus Group Responses

Overview

In early 2009 SEDL conducted focus group sessions with participants from across the state of Texas. The goal of the discussions was to gather information about the linguistic accommodations districts and schools provide to English language learners (ELLs) to meet these students’ linguistic and academic needs during both instruction and test administration.

The focus groups were conducted in various areas of the state serving diverse ELL populations and representing both rural and urban environments. In all, 14 focus group sessions were conducted in six regions. A mix of participants attended each session; they included teachers, campus administrators, district-level staff, department chairs, content coordinators, testing coordinators, and bilingual/English as a second language (ESL) directors. Groups occasionally included participants from only one district but most often included representatives from a number of different districts, each approaching the use of linguistic accommodations in their own way. As a result, the summary of answers to the questions and the data as a whole represent a composite of trends across districts and schools.

An interesting aspect of the data is the complexity and variation in services for ELLs. Some districts and schools have long-established ESL programs; still these districts reported challenges in placing enough emphasis on spoken English in a community environment that supports everyday use of Spanish. Other participants reported having students who speak languages other than Spanish (e.g., Russian, Arabic, Farsi, and many others). Participant districts with small ELL populations noted different challenges from those with large ELL populations. Most reported that they do not have sufficient resources to address ELLs’ needs in depth, and they look for ways to collaborate with nearby districts to provide the support needed.

In summary, linguistic accommodations for ELLs are being implemented, with a great deal of variation in instruction but with more uniformity during state assessments, as required by the Texas Education Agency (TEA) guidelines. Discussions across districts and schools revealed complex environments—some in which linguistic accommodations are prescribed by leaders and others where their use is determined at the individual school level, largely as a decision made by teachers.

Focus Group Questions

Each focus group was asked a series of questions. Sessions began by asking about activities at the district and school levels around linguistic accommodations during instruction and test administration (See Appendix A). Discussions then moved to questions about professional development and the role of the district and state in supporting the use of linguistic accommodations. Responses to questions varied both across and within locales. The following summary first presents cross-cutting themes from the data and then provides an overview of responses to each question.

Cross-Cutting Themes

A number of themes emerged across all the sessions. They include the following:

  • The classroom teacher is critical as the main support to ELLs. Whether content-area teachers, grade-level teachers, or ELL teachers, they know the students best and are the first point of access in work with ELLs.
  • School leaders need to provide in-house guidance and support. To do so, they need sufficient information about linguistic accommodations.
  • Professional development plans should extend beyond initial awareness; they should also address follow-up and the implementation of accommodations.
  • Professional development, especially in sheltered instruction and in understanding language development of ELL students, needs to be provided to all teachers, not just select groups.
  • Geographic differences may play a role in addressing the needs of ELLs.
  • The state can help by providing more examples of linguistic accommodations during instruction and assessments, as well as providing more funding and strategies to allow time for teachers to develop the skills they need.

Focus groups cited the classroom teacher or ESL teacher as the individual with primary responsibility for the successful implementation of linguistic accommodations for ELLs. Related issues were teachers’ understandings of appropriate accommodations and explicit examples of how they are implemented during instruction and test administration. This is true whether the teacher is an ESL/bilingual specialist, a content-area teacher, or a grade-level teacher. In many focus groups, it was reported that many teachers have only a superficial understanding of the use of linguistic accommodations during instruction, especially in the case of secondary teachers. Participants mentioned that attending training—or even gaining ESL or bilingual certification—does not guarantee that instruction with linguistic accommodations will occur. If the accommodations are to be successful, all teachers need a more in-depth understanding of how they should be implemented. Teachers of ELLs are also described as those most likely to make or influence decisions about what linguistic accommodations to use during both instruction and test administration. This is sometimes done in conjunction with the Language Proficiency Assessment Committee (LPAC) or another committee.

A second theme is that school and district leaders need to have essentially the same information regarding linguistic accommodations as teachers. Groups felt that school leaders should

  • develop a clear plan for meeting the needs of ELLs,
  • allocate time for ongoing professional development on linguistic accommodations,
  • participate in professional development on linguistic accommodations,
  • monitor the implementation of the plan, and
  • be certified in ESL.

The frequency of this response seemed to indicate that many felt leaders are not adequately informed and do not facilitate the implementation of linguistic accommodations.

Focus groups also discussed the need for quality professional development that extends beyond an initial introduction regarding state or district expectations. Responses described the need for a more cohesive plan that involves regional, district, and school staff. Some respondents noted that in small districts, there are not sufficient resources for high quality professional development and follow-up. Collaboration across districts, schools, or departments (e.g., assessment, curriculum, instruction, finance) was identified as a potential way to address this concern. For example, staff from assessment, bilingual/ESL, and special education programs could work together to plan and provide professional development around linguistic accommodations. Another group talked about the need for planning, coaching, and following up on the use of accommodations. Teachers often attend professional development, then are left to implement linguistic accommodations with little guidance and support from leaders on how these accommodations should be used during instruction. In addition, they are often allowed little or no time to plan collaboratively for implementing the elements learned in the professional development sessions. Other participants suggested that cross-grade-level or cross-content-area groups in a district and school might work together to address the needs of ELLs. All focus groups described time and funds as ongoing issues that impact professional development.

Focus group participants reported that the provision of linguistic accommodations appears to diminish at the high school level. Content-area teachers at the secondary level do not seem as knowledgeable about ways to meet the needs of ELLs. Many focus group participants mentioned Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) training and thought that it is a valuable tool for all teachers. Focus groups were also concerned that all teachers should recognize that merely because students have "exited" a bilingual or ESL program, it does not mean that they are as competent in English as other students. Individual students who have exited the program still need support in English acquisition.

Differences in use of linguistic accommodations vary by geographic region. In areas where there are more Spanish speakers, the accommodations are embedded in the culture of everyday life at the district and school. In areas that are rural, areas with more diverse non-English language populations, or areas more recently faced with meeting the needs of ELLs, providing linguistic accommodations is more compliance oriented.

Finally, in terms of state supports, a need exists for clarity, communication, time, funding, and strategies to help facilitate continued implementation of linguistic accommodations. In addition, participants indicated the need for a system to track students who are highly mobile. Respondents felt that policy makers do not have a clear idea of the process needed to implement the linguistic accommodations effectively. Groups felt that there should be more flexibility in the testing system, both for the requirements of testing and for the timeline for students to "exit" the program. Unanimously, focus groups expressed concern about the "one year" rule and its impact on testing ELL students; they felt the state should reconsider the rule.

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Responses to Individual Questions

Each response to the questions begins with direct quotes from focus group participants, and is then followed by the focus groups summary.

1. What linguistic accommodations are offered to English language learners during classroom instruction in your school or district?

Participants in one group interviewed named a variety of accommodations offered during instruction:

  • definitely the word-to-word bilingual glossaries, the dictionaries
  • simplification, oral translation
  • We have some adapted text, sometimes we have shortened assignments
  • [We] simplified the language for the student based on their language proficiency level
  • time building, background knowledge, and front-loading
  • maybe having a common experience for the youngsters before the lesson or the actual content begins
  • For me one of the major ones is certainly teaching in the native language.

When responding to this question, all groups listed specific accommodations, such as the following: dictionaries, word lists, pictures, simplified language, instruction in Spanish, word walls, thesauri, electronic support programs, bilingual instructors, cognates, sheltered instruction (SIOP model), bilingual glossaries, side-by-side instruction, using real objects, pre-teaching, "chunking" or breaking content into segments, peer tutoring, reading to children, linguistic modifications, dual-language schools, cluster groups, more time for work, teacher aides, reading test items, small group instruction, student-made glossaries, finding common experience, checking for understanding, computer-assisted programs, smart boards, and audio texts.

Analysis of the data indicated that there is variation in terms of how many linguistic accommodations are provided, how much emphasis the districts place on using accommodations, and where and when the accommodations are provided. Some rural areas and regions further from the Texas/Mexico border reported less capacity to implement accommodations, in particular the ability to provide translations. Discussions revealed that linguistic accommodations decrease or are less understood at the secondary level than at the elementary and middle school levels. Participants indicated that implementing linguistic accommodations at the secondary level is important but is often resisted by teachers. One district reported that linguistic accommodations are offered only during assessments.

Districts reported a variety of strategies for organizing support for ELLs:

  • Some develop action plans for providing support to ELLs in their campus improvement plans.
  • Some provide programs for ELLs within their student placement center at the high school.
  • Some have stand-alone programs for immigrants.
  • Some have a "red folder" checklist system for linguistic accommodations that must be provided to student.
  • Some have a system of placing students in beginning, intermediate, and advanced classes—based on their language skills—and graduation plans that specify the classes students need to take, especially for recent arrivals.

In some districts, at least one teacher per grade level is required to be certified in bilingual or ESL education; in a few districts only one person per school is required to hold certification. Some districts will require all teachers to earn bilingual or ESL certification in the very near future. Participants from all districts and schools mentioned interest in sheltered instruction and most had attended some professional development in SIOP. Some participants were concerned about whether linguistic accommodations implemented during instruction meet state guidelines, including the ELPS.

Students also have responsibility for requesting linguistic accommodations in some districts. Some teachers coach their ELLs to ask for linguistic accommodations as they feel they need them. A number of districts described a "red folder" that ELLs carry with them; it provides a list of linguistic accommodations teachers need to provide. In addition, as a student gets closer to "exiting," some districts provide linguistic accommodations only upon request or as needed during assessments. Another strategy is allowing students who have "exited" to act as translators for other ELLs when needed. This is seen as a means to reinforce and reward many students.

2. How are decisions made about linguistic accommodations provided during classroom instruction? Who is involved in making those decisions?

Focus group participants mentioned a range of educators involved in the decision-making process regarding the use of linguistic accommodations during classroom instruction:

  • I guess the main player in terms of making those accommodations—certainly the first one—is the teacher. But it’s also who the teacher is.
  • If you’re just talking about general ed content area teachers at the secondary level those decisions are usually driven by campuswide initiatives. And in some cases how much training that campus has had about ELLs will drive those decisions. And so those decisions are really made by administrators, content area teachers, [and] support staff. In some cases counselors get involved.
  • A lot of the campuses, at least at the secondary level, have vice principals . . . given the job of dealing with instruction, so some of those decisions are made by that vice principal along with a team of educators. At the elementary level you usually have a group of core people at the campus level that do gather together to drive some of those decisions as well.

Focus group participants were mixed in their responses to this question. Many said the LPAC committee is the key decision maker regarding linguistic accommodations. LPAC committees are usually school level and include an administrator, teacher(s), parents, bilingual teacher, counselor, special education teacher, bilingual/ESL-certified teacher, and possibly others. Some focus groups said that the classroom teacher is the most important decision maker, with support from an intervention team or the LPAC committee. Student progress is reviewed on a regular basis, usually every four to six weeks, especially for newcomers or high-needs students. Decisions are made based on results from the Texas English Language Proficiency Assessment System (TELPAS), observation, teacher input, and other documentation.

In most districts, school teams meet more than once a year to look at students’ progress and make changes where necessary. Regardless of what process is used, all groups said that the regular teacher who works with students has the most input, because the teacher knows the students best and can provide the best guidance regarding their needs.

3. What linguistic accommodations are offered to English language learners during assessments?

One group interviewed listed a variety of accommodations provided for assessments:

  • linguistic simplification
  • clarification of words or phrases
  • a bilingual glossary or bilingual dictionary
  • English on one side, and Spanish on one side
  • reading the question orally
  • paraphrase

Two themes emerged related to this issue. First, most districts follow the state decision-making manual "to the letter," and they choose linguistic accommodations for testing from the state list. Second, many of the linguistic accommodations for testing are the same as the ones students would receive during instruction, including a Spanish/English dictionary, verbal instructions, translations, pictures, spoken answers, transcribing, and, if possible, administration of the test by the teacher with whom the students usually work. Some participants noted that teachers are encouraged to use accommodations on other tests and during instruction prior to state testing, while some only reported use of linguistic accommodations during state assessments. All focus groups discussed the state requirements for assessments and a concern about whether schools and teachers are addressing the needs of ELLs correctly.

4. How are decisions made about linguistic accommodations for assessments? Who is involved in making those decisions? Which students are eligible to receive such accommodations?

Participants provided targeted answers about decision making related to linguistic accommodations for assessments:

  • As for the linguistic accommodations and the regular classroom teachers’ assessments, it is usually at the teacher’s discretion, what the teacher decides the child needs, and what kind of accommodations they need.
  • [Those involved in making the decisions are] the LPAC committee, along with the teachers, and reviewing the data in reference to years in U.S. schools, and meeting that criteria. So it is the teacher and the committee.
  • [As for which students are eligible] it’s your new arrivals, who are eligible for the first three years of exemptions.

In general, participants reported that the state LPAC manual guides decisions on exemption eligibility and linguistic accommodations. For "regular" (i.e., classroom) assessments, decisions regarding linguistic accommodations are largely teacher dependent. For state assessments, the LPAC committee plays a major role and meets periodically to reassess student progress and make recommendations. At least one respondent noted that in his/her district, the LPAC meets only once each year. Special education and the Annual Review and Dismissal (ARD) committee might request accommodations for ELLs who also qualify for special education services. Whatever linguistic accommodations are made, decisions are based on the student’s language proficiency. A number of groups mentioned that professional development for administering TELPAS and technical assistance from the regional service centers are helpful in guiding the decision-making process.

5. Please describe the professional development provided in the past two years for educators in your school or district regarding linguistic accommodations.

One participant described professional development on linguistic accommodations that was an emphasis in the district training:

  • The past two years we had our districtwide staff development in October, and the focus is the ELL students. And we’ve invited people from the region—coordinators and even the director . . . So they have the teachers for half a day—or this year it was all day—and they teach them all [about the] ELL student and their linguistic needs and they review the proficiency level descriptives and the ELPs. And then they go into specifically what the LAT accommodations are, how they need to be by the request of the student, what are some of the text materials that you can use for these—what types of dictionaries they can use. So for the past two fall semesters we specifically had sessions that were titled LAT… and TAKS testing.

Focus groups reported a variety of professional development topics and events. Professional development topics include linguistic accommodations, ESL strategies, and SIOP. All groups mentioned SIOP as beneficial for all levels and teachers. Other professional development topics that were mentioned include a dual-language institute, Marzano’s work on differentiated instruction and academic vocabulary, phonics and language development, LPAC, ESL teaching strategies, Kagan, English language proficiency standards (ELPS), coaching, Catherine Brown’s program in content areas, online training from service centers, ESL certification, and other conferences and meetings.

A variety of practices were reported with regard to professional development on linguistic accommodation in instruction. Many reported that teachers go to the professional development sessions and are left on their own to implement what they learned. Others said teachers attend professional development and return to share what they learned with colleagues at the school level. Another practice includes follow-up by administrators, coordinators, and bilingual/ESL specialists via walkthroughs, with subsequent feedback and support. Professional development sometimes occurs in the summer months with additional sessions in the fall and spring. In some cases, grade-level or specialty teachers (dual language, ESL, bilingual, content areas) have monthly meetings to discuss the success of the implementation of strategies learned through professional development.

Teachers commented that it is difficult to find time to attend professional development during the school day. Focus groups also said that there is a tendency to send the same "language" people to conferences repeatedly and then expect them to influence the school. What is really needed is for a broader group of teachers to attend professional development sessions so they can develop an understanding of the needs of ELLs and appropriate linguistic accommodations. In addition, they reported that while districts provide professional development, high school teachers are often resistant to implementing linguistic accommodations during instruction.

In terms of professional development for assessments conducted at the district and school levels, the majority of respondents said that they receive information on linguistic accommodations primarily from the TELPAS training, in addition to some from LPAC and ELPS training. They commented that online training helps with accommodations on assessment. Professional development for instruction and assessments was reported more often where there are greater numbers of students who might need linguistic accommodations.

6. Please describe how the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) are used in your school or district to improve student learning.

Participants in one focus group described their district’s use of the ELPS:

  • Well, the ELPS are new in Texas. And I’m not certain they’re fully implemented in any district. However, we had the opportunity through the SIOP training that we’ve done—because John Seidlitz is our trainer and he’s written a book called Navigating the ELPS. So he has used all of his instruments that he’s shared in that book—Navigating the ELPS—to train our teachers on how to use them as part of their language objectives.
  • They write a content objective and a language objective for every lesson. And we’re using the ELPS as the language objective for every lesson. Now, I have to say though that it’s the teachers who have gone through that training that are doing that. So we’ve got about 80 teachers—not every teacher in our district yet has been trained.
  • We show our teachers how the standards are imbedded at the different stages of language cognition so that it’s not just in the ESL classroom.

Focus groups were divided on their opinion of the ELPS. Many stated that the ELPS are a new initiative and not well known or understood. They could see a potential connection to SIOP and for engaging content-area teachers in meeting the needs of ELLs.

One group provided several examples of activities underway to use the ELPS in their district. One participant described the inclusion of the ELPS in the district’s computer-based lesson-planning system. Another described work to train principals to recognize the ELPS in practice during classroom walkthroughs. Creating collaboration among novice teachers and those more experienced with the ELPS was also cited as a helpful strategy.

Focus group participants pointed out that more time is needed for the ELPS to be implemented. In many districts, the bilingual/ESL coordinator attended the ELPS training and then provided professional development for teachers. "The fact that ELPS [are] not negotiable (i.e., part of law) is very good because the ELPS includes all content areas. The understanding is that ALL teachers, K–12, will have ELPS training." The focus groups are anticipating more information and guidance from the state.

7. Please describe how you distinguish between linguistic accommodations provided to ELL students and accommodations provided to special education students.

One focus group member described the distinction between accommodations for ELL students and those for special education students:

  • A special ed child is a child with disabilities. They have IAPs. You have to use your IAP, so then you base your interventions or your accommodations, which are a little bit different from what you get with ELL students. Yes, you get accommodations, but it is not based on a disability. It is based on language proficiency.

In discussing this question, participants made distinctions between language acquisition and learning disabilities. Linguistic accommodations are intended to help students speak, write, and understand English. The ARD process, a completely separate decision-making process, determines accommodations for special education students. Linguistic accommodations, because they are not legally binding, are often teacher driven. Some teachers provide many such accommodations; some provide few. Participants felt that there are few cases of overlap between accommodations for ELLs and those for special education students. Though some of the accommodations might be similar, they have a different purpose. ELL linguistic accommodations are for acquiring language and are adjusted according to a student’s English language acquisition.

8. What could your district or school do to improve the process of making decisions about and implementation of linguistic accommodations for ELLs?

One participant expressed concern over lack of follow-up after the students leave elementary school:

  • In elementary we’re very good at supporting all these kids and their families and making sure that they’ve got what they need and… then we get them to junior high… and nobody follows through with what they’re doing… So I know that's a big concern… for our district.

A major focus of responses to this question involved the support and implementation of linguistic accommodations. A number of groups commented on the need for administrators to clarify, monitor, and review implementation of the accommodations. They also noted that school leaders and teachers must be knowledgeable regarding appropriate instruction for ELLS and what the instruction "looks like" in the classroom. Some suggested that the district or school could train ELL paraprofessionals to assist in classrooms; others suggested a need for a better system for gathering data on ELLs—one that includes affective domains and teacher perceptions, not just numbers. All mentioned the need for ongoing professional development and the need to extend training to all teachers of ELLs. They also commented on the need to communicate clear expectations regarding linguistic accommodations to all teachers and to work to develop skills at the secondary level.

9. What could the state do to improve the process of making decisions about and implementation of linguistic accommodations for ELLs?

A member of one focus group noted the importance of the state identifying exemplars in the implementation of linguistic accommodations for ELLs:

  • In order for the Texas Education Agency to understand… they have to be out here in the trenches in the districts finding out what is actually happening in school districts that are being successful and replicating those kinds of programs across the state.

Responses to this question clustered around a number of issues. First, many thought that the Texas Education Agency (TEA) and policy makers do not have a realistic perception of what research says about language acquisition—it takes more than three years. Second, the state could be more supportive by providing greater clarity in expectations and allocating funding to help with professional development and implementation. Third, the state needs to reconsider several topics related to how districts address ELL issues, including the "one year" rule as well as requirements for "exiting" and support for students who have left the program.

Another set of responses addressed professional development. Groups felt that the state could encourage professional development for paraprofessionals, in addition to content and core teachers. Additionally, it could make professional development more accessible and timely for all teachers and make the ELPS training mandatory. Furthermore, groups thought that the state could be more consistent in what it considers good practice, to the point of undertaking its own research on linguistic accommodations that work in the classroom. Consistency is needed in standardizing accommodations for testing to minimize variations from year to year and from school to school. Groups thought that the state might review the testing process to discourage teaching to the test and to ensure that students are not discouraged by taking the test too early. Another considerations was for students to be tested for content side-by-side or completely in their native language, to determine whether any problem is a content or a language issue. New initiatives, such as the ELPS, should be carefully planned to be clear, timely, strategic, and supported and to avoid an "overload of expectations."

Summary

Linguistic accommodations for ELLs are primarily being implemented by ESL/bilingual specialists. Focus groups, however, would like to see their use expanded to all teachers, perhaps through the ELPS. They were concerned that teachers are not skilled in addressing students’ language needs once they are exited from the bilingual/ESL program. This could have a detrimental influence on students’ academic progress in successive years. If more teachers became familiar with the goal of linguistic accommodations and embedded relevant strategies in their curriculum plans, students would benefit.

Compiled by Dr. Suzanne Stiegelbauer

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APPENDIX - English Language Learners Focus Group Protocol

Preparation: Prior to the participants’ arrival, arrange the room in a horseshoe configuration so participants can see one another and so that you can place digital recorders at locations that will pick up sound. You should have at least two recorders.

Decide in advance who will facilitate and who will take notes during the focus group. The facilitator and note taker should sit at the head of the horseshoe. Carefully label all the data. The note taker should label the notes with the location, the date, and the time of the focus group. Be sure everyone has signed the sign-in sheet and received a reimbursement packet.

WELCOME (10 MINUTES)

Thank you for taking the time to participate in our discussion group. My name is [NAME] and with me today is [NAME]. We are here on behalf of TEA and we’re glad to have this opportunity to talk with you. You should have received a reimbursement form when you signed in. If not, please raise your hand. [distribute forms] You will be reimbursed for mileage and substitute pay. Instructions for completing the forms are attached to them with a self-addressed stamped envelope. If you have any questions, please do not hesitate to see one of us at the end of this meeting.

Goal of the Focus Group

We have asked you to participate in this focus group in order to learn more about how Texas educators make decisions about linguistic accommodations for English language learners in instruction and on assessments. You were invited to this discussion to share your experiences with the processes of determining appropriate linguistic accommodations for ELLs in your schools. We are holding focus groups in six other areas in Texas to gather similar information. We want your ideas and thoughts about what works well and what might work even better.

Procedures

Today we want to lead a discussion about ways you typically make decisions about linguistic accommodation; the types of professional development offered regarding linguistic accommodations; and the types of linguistic accommodations your schools offer to ELLs. We need to hear from all of you, especially if what you have to say is different from others in the group! We encourage you to speak up and be as open with us as possible.

At times we may need to move quickly through some of the questions so that we can finish on time. We realize you are busy and value your time.

We will be audio recording the discussion (as well as taking notes) as a way to capture everyone’s ideas. We want to assure you that the recording will be for our use only and no one else will have access to the notes, the recording, or a transcript of the discussion.

Confidentiality and Use of the Information You Provide

I want to make sure you understand that what you share with us is confidential. No part of our discussion that includes names or other identifying information will be used in any reports. Our team evaluator will write a summary based on our time with all the educators we visit across Texas. The final report will not identify individual participants or schools by name. It will be a summary across the schools and where quotes are used the quotes will be anonymous.

Are there any questions regarding the goal of this discussion and the use of the information you will be providing?

REVIEW QUESTIONS (5–10 MINUTES)

Before we begin the discussion let’s review the Focus Group Questions. Please look at the questions and jot down a few thoughts before we begin. Take about 5 minutes to look over the questions.

Let’s take a moment to get acquainted. Would each of you please state your name, where you are from, and how long you have been working with English language learners?

FOCUS GROUP DISCUSSION (60 MINUTES) Refer to Core Practices Overview

Thank you for sharing that information—let’s begin with question one:

  1. What linguistic accommodations are offered to English language learners during classroom instruction in your school or district?
  2. How are decisions made about linguistic accommodations provided during classroom instruction? Who is involved in making those decisions?
  3. What linguistic accommodations are offered to English language learners during assessments?
  4. How are decisions made about linguistic accommodations for assessments? Who is involved in making those decisions? Which students are eligible to receive such accommodations?
  5. Please describe the professional development provided in the past two years for educators in your school or district regarding linguistic accommodations
    1. in instruction?
    2. on assessments?
  6. Please describe how the English language proficiency standards (ELPS) are used in your school or district to improve student learning.
  7. Please describe how you distinguish between linguistic accommodations provided to ELLs and accommodations provided to special education students.

SUGGESTIONS/IDEAS (15 MINUTES)

  1. What could your district or school do to improve the process of making decisions about and implementation of linguistic accommodations for ELLs?
  2. What could the state do to improve the process of making decisions about and implementation of linguistic accommodations for ELLs?

CLOSING/WRAP UP (5 MINUTES)

Those are all the questions we have for you. Is there anything else that someone wants to say or thinks we should know about the topics we discussed today?

Thank you again for coming. We appreciate your time and participation very much!

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