SEDL Home
Advancing Research, Improving Education
SEDL's Reading Resources
Cognitive Framework of Reading Reading Assessment Database Short Papers Reading First Links
Table of Contents

Overview

Cognitive Elements of Reading

Reading Assessment Techniques

Research Evidence

Using the Framework

References

Acknowledgements

PDF version

Purchase a print copy


Related Resources
Glossary of reading terms

Instructional Resources - Literary References

Instructional Resources - Instructional Activities

References

Aaron, P.G. (1991). Can reading disabilities be diagnosed without using intelligence tests? Journal of Learning Disabilities. 24, 178-186.

Adams, M.J. (1990). Beginning to Read: Thinking and Learning About Print. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Adams, M.J. and Bruck, M. (1993). Word recognition: The interface of educational Policies and scientific research. Reading and Writing: An interdisciplinary Journal, 5, 113-139.

Anderson, J.R., & Bower, G.H. (I973). Human associative memory. New York:Wiley.

Anderson, R. C., Hiebert, E. H., Scott, J., and Wilkinson, 1. (1985) Becoming a Nation of Readers. Washington, DC: National Institute of Education.

Baddeley, A.D., Ellis, N.C., Miles, T.R., and Lewis, V.J. (1982). Developmental and acquired dyslexia: A comparison. Cognition, 11, 185-199.

Baker, S.K., Kameenui, E.J., Simmons, D.C., Stahl, S. (1994). Beginning reading: Educational tools for diverse learners. School Psychology Review, 23, 372-391.

Ball, E.W. and Blachman, B.A. (1988). Phoneme segmentation training: Effect on Reading readiness. Annals of Dyslexia, 38, 208-225.

Ball, E.W. and Blachman, B.A. (1991). Does phoneme awareness training in Kindergarten make a difference in early word recognition and developmental Spelling? Reading Research Quarterly, 26(1), 49-66.

Balota, D., Pollatsek, A., & Rayner, K. (1985). The interaction of contextual constraints and parafoveal visual information in reading. Cognitive Psychology, 17, 364-390.

Barnes, M.A. and Dennis, M. (1996). Reading comprehension deficits arise from Diverse sources: Evidence from readers with and without developmental brain Pathology. In C. Cornoldi and J. Oakhill (Eds.), Reading comprehension Difficulties: Processes and intervention. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Baron, J. and Strawson, C. (1976). Use of orthographic and word-specific knowledge in reading words aloud. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance. Vol 2(3), 386-393.

Barron, R. W. (1986). Word recognition in early reading: A review of the direct and indirect access hypotheses. Cognition, 24, 93-119.

Barron, R.W. (1994). The sound-to-spelling connection: Orthographic activation in Auditory word recognition and its implications for the acquisition of phonological Awareness and literacy skills. In V.W. Berninger (Ed.), The varieties of Orthographic knowledge I: Theoretical and developmental issues (pp. 219-242). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer.

Bateman, B. (1991). Teaching word recognition to slow-learning children. Reading, Writing and Learning Disabilities, 7, 1-16.

Baumann, J.F. and Kameenui, E.J. (1991). Research on vocabulary instruction: Ode To Voltaire. In J. Flood, J.J. Lapp, and J.R. Squire (Eds.), Handbook of research On teaching the English language arts (pp. 604-632). New York: MacMillan.

Bear, D.R. and Barone, D. (1989). Using children's spellings to group for word study And directed reading in the primary classroom. Reading Psychology, 10, 275-292.

Beck, I. and Juel, C. (1995). The role of decoding in learning to read. American Educator, 19, (2), 8-25.

Beck, I.L. and McKeown, M.G. (1986). Instructional research in reading: A Retrospective. In J. Orasanu (Ed.), Reading comprehension: From research To practice (pp. 113-134). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Beck, I.L. and McKeown, M.G. (1991). Social studies texts are hard to understand: Mediating some of the difficulties. Language Arts, 68, 482-490.

Beck, I.L., Omanson, R.C., and McKeown, M.G. (1982). An instructional redesign Of reading lessons: Effects on comprehension. Reading Research Quarterly, 17, 462-481.

Beck, I.L., Perfetti, C.A., and McKeown, M.G. (1982). Effects of long-term Vocabulary instruction on lexical access and reading comprehension. Reading Research Quarterly, 17, 462-481.

Becker, C.A. (1982). The development of semantic context effects: Two processes or two strategies? Reading Research Quarterly, 17, 482-502.

Becker, C. A. (1985). What do we really know about semantic context effects during reading? In D. Besner, T. Waller, and G. MacKinnon (eds), Reading Research: Advances in Theory and Practice, New York: Academic Press, vol. 5, pp. 125-66.

Becker, W.C. (1977). Teaching and reading language to the disadvantaged: What we have learned from field research. Harvard Educational Review. 47, 518-543.

Ben-Dror, I., Pollatsek, A., and Scarpati, S. (1991). Word identification in isolation and in context by college dyslexic students. Brain and Language, 40, 471-90.

Bentin, S. and Leshem, H. (1993). On the interaction between phonological awareness and reading acquisition: It's a two-way street. Annuals of Dyslexia, 43, 125-148.

Bertelson, P. (1986). The onset of literacy: Liminal remarks. Cognition. Vol 24(1-2), 1-30.

Biemiller, A. (1977). Relationships between oral reading rates for letters, words, And simple text in the development of reading achievement. Reading Research Quarterly, 13, 223-253.

Bishop, D.V.M. and Adams, C. (1990). A prospective study of the relationship between specific language impairment, phonological disorders and reading retardation. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 31, 1027-1050

Bissex, G.L. (1980). GYNS AT WRK: A Child Learns to Read and Write. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Blachman, B. (1984). Relationship of rapid naming ability and language analysis skills to kindergarten and first-grade reading achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 76, 610-622.

Bond, G.L. and Dykstra, R. (1967). The cooperative research programme in first grade Instruction. Reading Research Quarterly, 2, 5-142.

Bowey, J.A. (1994). Phonological sensitivity in novice readers and nonreaders. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 58, 135-159.

Bowey, J.A. (1995). Socioeconomic status differences in preschool phonological sensitivity and first-grade reading achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 87, 476-487.

Bradley, L. (1989). Predicting learning disabilities. In J. Dumont & H. Nakken (Eds.), Learning Disabilities: Vol. 2. Cognitive, social and remedial aspects (pp. 1-18). Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Swets.

Bradley, L. and Bryant, P. (1978). Difficulties in auditory organization as a possible cause of reading backwardness. Nature, 271, 746-747.

Bradley, L. and Bryant, P.E. (1983). Categorizing sounds and learning to read: A Causal connection. Nature, 30, 419-421.

Bradley, L., and Bryant, P.E. (1985). Rhyme and Reason in Reading and Spelling. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Bradley, L., & Bryant, P. (1991). Phonological skills before and after learning to read. In S. A. Brady & D. P. Shankweiler (Eds.), Phonological processes in literacy: A tribute to Isabelle Y Liberman (pp. 37-45). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Briggs, P., Austin, S., and Underwood, G. (1984). The effects of sentence context in good and poor readers: A test of Stanovich's interactive-compensatory model. Reading Research Quarterly, 20, 54-61.

Brown, D. L., and Briggs, L. D. (1991). Becoming literate: The acquisition of story discourse. Reading Horizons, 32 (2), 139-153.

Brown, I. S., and Felton, R. H. (1990). Effects of instruction on beginning reading skills in children at risk for reading disability. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary journal, 2, 223-41.

Brown, R. (1957). Linguistic determinism and the part of speech. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 55, 1-5.

Bruck, M. (1988). The word recognition and spelling of dyslexic children. Reading Research Quarterly, 23, 51-69.

Bruck, M. (1990). Word-recognition skills of adults with childhood diagnoses of Dyslexia. Developmental Psychology, 26(3), 439-454.

Bruck, M. (1992). Persistence of dyslexics' pbonological awareness deficits. Developmental Psychology, 28, 874-886.

Bryant, P. and Goswami, U. (1986). Strengths and weaknesses of the reading level design: A comment on Backman, Mamen, and Ferguson. Psychological Bulletin, 100(1), 101-103.

Bryant, P.E., MacLean, M., Bradley, L.L. and Crossland, J. (1990). Rhyme and alliteration, phoneme detection, and learning to read. Developmental Psychology, 26, 429-438

Butler, S.R., Marsh, H.W., Sheppard, M.J and Sheppard, L.J. (1985). Seven-year longitudinal study of the early prediction of reading achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 77, 349-361.

Byrne, B. (1992) Studies in the acquisition procedure for reading: Rationale, hypotheses, and data. In P.B. Gough, L.C. Ehri and R. Treiman (Eds.), Reading acquisition. (pp. 1-34). Hillsdale, NJ, USA: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Byrne, B. (1996). The learnability of the alphabetic principle: Children's initial hypotheses about how print represents spoken speech. Applied Psycholinguistics, 17, 401-426.

Byrne, B. and Fielding-Barnsley, R. (1989). Phonemic awareness and letter knowledge in the child's acquisitions of the alphabetic principle. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80(1), 313-321.

Byrne, B. and Fielding-Barnsley, R. (1990). Acquiring the alphabetic principle: A case For teaching recognition of phoneme identity. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 805-812.

Byrne, B. and Fielding-Barnsley, R. (1991). Evaluation of a program to teach phonemic Awareness to young children. Journal of Educational Psychology, 83(3), 451-455.

Byrne, B. and Fielding-Barnsley, R. (1993). Evaluation of a program to teach phonomic Awareness to young children: A one year follow up. Journal of Educational Psychology, 85, 104-111.

Byrne, B. and Fielding-Barnsley, R. (1995). Evaluation of a program to teach phonemic Awareness to young children. A 2- and 3- year follow up and a new preschool Trial. Journal of Educational Psychology, 87(3), 488-503.

Carroll, J.B. (1977). Developmental parameters in reading comprehension. In J.T. Guthrie (Ed.), Cognition, curriculum, and comprehension (pp. 25-51). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

Castle, J. M., Riach, J., and Nicholson, T. (1994). Getting off to a better start in reading and spelling: The effects of phonemic awareness instruction within a whole language program. Journal of Educational Psychology, 86, 350-359.

Chall, J.S. (1983). Stages of Reading Development. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Chall, J.S. (1989). Learning to read: The great debate twenty years later. A response To "Debunking the great phonics myth." Phi Delta Kappan, 71, 521-538.

Chall, J.S. (1996). Learning to read: The great debate (revised, with a new forward). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Chaney, C. (1992). Language development, metalinguistic skills, and print awareness in 3-year-old children. Applied Psycholinguistics, 13, 485-514.

Chiesi, H.L., Spilich, G.J., and Voss, J.F. (1979). Acquisition of domain-related Information in relation to high and low domain knowledge. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 18, 257-274.

Clay, M. (1979a). Reading: The patterning of complex behavior. Auckland: Heinemann.

Clay, M. (1979b). The early detection of reading difficulties. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Clay, M. (1985). The Early Detection of Reading Difficulties. Auckland, New Zealand: Heinemann.

Clay, M.M., and Imlach, R.H. (1971). Juncture, pitch and stress as reading behavior Variables. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 10, 133-139.

Coltheart, M. (1978). Lexical access in simple reading tasks. In G. Underwood (Ed.), Strategies of information processing (pp. 151-216). London: Academic Press.

Corley, P.J. (1988). A developmental analysis of sentence comprehension abilities in good and poor readers. Educational Psychologist, 23, 57-75.

Cromer, W. (1970). The difference model: A new explanation for some reading Difficulties. Journal of Educational Psychology, 61, 471-483.

Cunningham, A.E. (1990). Explicit versus implicit instruction in phonemic awareness. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 50, 429-444.

Cunningham, A.E., and Stanovich, K.E. (1993). Children's literacy environments and Early word recognition skills. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 5, 193-204.

Curtis, M.E. (1980). Development of components of reading skill. Journal of Educational Psychology, 72(5), 656-669.

Daneman, M. (1988). Word knowledge and reading skill. In M. Daneman, G. MacKinnon, and T.G. Walker (Eds.), Reading Research: Advances in theory And practice (pp. 145-175). San Diego: Academic.

Danks, J. (1980). Comprehension in listening and reading: Same or different? In J. Danks and K. Pezdek (Eds.), Reading and understanding (pp. 25-40). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

Defoir, S. and Tudela, P. (1994). Effect of phonological training on reading and Writing acquisition. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 6, 299-320.

Dickinson, D.K. and Snow, C.E. (1987). Interrelationships among prereading and oral language skills in kindergartners from two social classes. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 2, 1-25.

Dickinson, D.K. and Tabors, P.O. (1991). Early literacy: Linkages between home, School, and literacy achievement at age five. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 6(1), 30-46.

Dowhower, S.L. (1987). Effects of repeated reading on second-grade transitional readers' fluency and comprehension. Reading Research Quarterly. Vol 22(4), 389-406.

Duker, S. (1965). Listening and reading. Elementary School Journal, 65, 321-324.

Durrell, D.D. and Hayes, M. (1969). Durrell listening-reading series: Manual for listening and reading tests. New York: Psychological Corporation.

Dykstra, R. (1968). The effectiveness of code- and meaning-emphasis beginning Reading programs. The Reading Teacher, 22, 17-23.

Ehri, L. (1977). Do adjectives and functors interfere as much as nouns in naming pictures? Child Development, 48, 697-701

Ehri, L.C. (1991). Learning to read and spell words. In L. Rieben and C.A, Perfetti (Eds.), Learning to Read: Basic Research and Its Implications (pp. 57-73). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Ehri, L.C. (1992). Reconceptualizing the development of sight word reading and its Relationship to recoding. In P. Gough, L. Ehri, and R. Treiman (Eds.), Reading Acquisition (pp. 107-143). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Ehri, L.C. (1994). Development of the ability to read words: Update. In R. Ruddell and H. Singer (Eds.), Theoretical models and processes of reading (4th ed., pp. 323-358). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

Ehri, L.C. (1995). Phases of development in learning to read words by sight. Journal Of Research in Reading, 18, 116-125.

Ehri, L.C. (1998). Word reading by sight and by analogy in beginning readers. In C. Hulme and R. Joshi (Eds.), Reading and Spelling; Development and Disorders (pp. 87-111). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Ehri, L.C. and Robbins, C. (1992). Beginners need some decoding skill to read by Analogy. Reading Research Quarterly, 27, 13-26.

Ehri, L.C. and Sweet, J. (1991). Fingerpoint-reading of memorized text: What enables Beginners to process the print? Reading Research Quarterly, 24, 442-462.

Ehri, L.C., and Wilce, L.S. (1985). Movement into reading: Is the first stage of printed Word learning visual or phonetic? Reading Research Quarterly, 20, 163-179.

Ehri, L.C. and Wilce, L.S. (1987a). Cipher versus cue reading: An experiment in Decoding acquisition. Journal of Educational Psycholgy, 79, 3-13.

Ehri, L.C. and Wilce, L.S. (1987b). Does learning to spell help beginners learn to read Words? Reading Research Quarterly, 22, 47-65.

Ehrlich, M.F., Kurtz-Costes, B., & Loridant, C. (1993). Cognitive and motivational determinants of reading comprehension in good and poor readers. Journal of Reading Behavior, 25, 365-381.

Ehrlich, S. & Rayner, K. (1981). Contextual effects on word perception and eye movements during reading. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 20, 641-655.

Evans, M. A., and Carr, T. H. (1985) Cognitive abilities, conditions of learning, and the early development of reading skill. Reading Research Quarterly, 20, 327-50.

Felton, R. H. (1993). Effects of instruction on the decoding skills of children with phonological-processing problems. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 26, 583-589.

Felton, R.H. and Pepper, P.P. (1995). Early identification and intervention of phonological deficits in kindergarten and early elementary children at risk for reading disability. School Psychology Review, 24(3), 405-414.

Finucci, J.M., Gottfredson, L.S., & Childs, B. (I 985). A follow-up study of dyslexic boys. Annals of Dyslexia, 35, 117-136.

Firth, I. (1972). Components of reading disability. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of New South Wales, Kensington, N.S.W. Australia.

Foorman, B.R. (1995). Research on "the Great Debate" - Code-oriented versus Whole Language approaches to reading instruction. School Psychology Review, 24, 376-392.

Foorman, B.R., Francis, D.J., Beeler, T., Winikates, D., and Fletcher, J.M. (1997). Early Interventions for Children with Reading Problems: Study Designs and Preliminary Findings. Learning Disabilities: A Multi-Disciplinary Journal, 8, 63-71.

Foorman, B.R., Francis, D.J., Shaywitz, S.E., Shaywitz, B.A., Fletcher, J.M. (1997). The case for early reading intervention. In Blachman, B.A. (Ed), Foundations of reading acquisition and dyslexia: Implications for early intervention. (pp. 243- 264). Mahwah, NJ, USA: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Foorman, B.R., Francis, D.J., Winikates, D., Mehta, P., Schatschneider, C., and Fletcher, J.M. (1997). Early interventions for children with reading disabilities. Scientific Studies of Reading. Vol 1(3). 255-276.

Fox, B. and Routh, D.K. (1975). Analyzing spoken language into words, syllables, and phonemes: A developmental study. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 4, 331-342.

Fox, B. and Routh, D.K. (1984). Phonemic analysis and synthesis as word attack skills: Revisited. Journal of Educational Psychology, 76(6), 1059-1064.

Francis, D.J., Shaywitz, S.E., Stuebing, K.K., & Fletcher, J.M. (1994). The measurement of change: Assessing behavior over time and within a developmental context. In G. R. Lyon (Ed.), Frames of reference for the assessment of learning disabilities: New views on measurement issues (pp. 29-58). Baltimore: Brookes.

Frauenheim, J.G., & Heckerl, J.R. (1983). A longitudinal study of psychological and achievement test performance in severe dyslexic adults. Journal of Leaming Disabilities, 16, 339-347.

Frith, U. (1985). Beneath the surface of phonetic dyslexia. In K. Patterson, J. Marshall, And M. Coltheart (Eds.), Surface Dyslexia: Neuropsychological and Cognitive Studies of Phonological Reading (pp. 301-330). London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Garner, R.C. (1980). Monitoring of understanding: An investigation of good and poor reader's awareness of indused miscomprehension of text. Journal of Reading Behavior, 12, 55-63.

Gibson, E.J., Gibson, J.J., Pick, A.D., & Osser, H.A. (1962). A developmental study of the discrimination of letter-like forms. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 55, 897-906.

Gibson, E.J., & Levin, H. (1975). The psychology of reading. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Gillet, J.W. and Temple, C. (1990). Understanding reading problems (3rd ed.). Glenview, IL: Scott Foresman.

Goldsmith-Phillips, J. (1989). Word and context in reading development: A test of the interactive-compensatory hypothesis. Joumal of Educational Psychology, 81, 299-305.

Goodman, G.S., Haith, M.M., Guttentag, R.E., & Rao, S. (1985). Automatic processing of word meaning: Intralingual and interlingual interference. Child Development, 56, 103-118.

Gordon, P. (1982). The acquisition of syntactic categories: The case of the count / mass distinction. Dissertation. MIT.

Goswami, U. (1986). Children's use of analogy in learning to read: A developmental Study. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 42, 73-83.

Goswami, U. (1988). Orthographic analogies and reading development. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 40, 239-268.

Goswami, U. (1990a). Phonological priming and orthographic analogies in reading. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 49, 323-340.

Goswami, U. (1990b). A special link between rhyming skill and the use of orthographic Analogies by beginning readers. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 31, 301-311.

Goswami, U. (1994). Reading by analogy: Theoretical and practical perspectives. In C. Hulme and M. Snowling (Eds.), Reading development and dyslexia (pp.18-30). London: Whurr.

Goswami, U. (1998). The role of analogies in the development of word recognition. In J. Metsala and L. Ehri (Eds.), Word recognition in beginning literacy. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Goswami, U., & Bryant, P. (1992). Rhyme, analogy and children's reading. In P.B. Gough, L.C. Ehri, & R. Treiman (Eds.), Reading Acquisition (pp. 49-64). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates, Inc.

Gough, P.B. (1984). Word Recognition. In P.D. Pearson (Ed.), Handbook of Reading Research, 225-254. New York: Longman.

Gough, P.B., and Hillinger, M.L. (1980). Learning to read: An unnatural act. Bulletin Of the Orton Society, 20, 179-196.

Gough, P.B. and Tunmer, W.E. (1986). Decoding, reading and reading disability. Remedial and Special Education, 7, 6-10.

Gough, P.B. and Walsh, M.A. (1991). Chinese, Phoenicians, and the orthographic Cipher of English. In S. Brady and D Shankweiler (Eds.), Phonological processes In literacy (pp. 199-209). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Gough, P.B. and Wren, S.A. (1998). The decomposition of decoding. In C. Hulme and R. Joshi (Eds.), Reading and Spelling; Development and Disorders (pp. 19-32). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Gough, P.B., Juel, C., and Griffith, P.L. (1992). Reading, spelling, and theorthographic cipher. In P.B. Gough, L.C. Ehri, and R. Treiman (Eds.), Reading Acquisition, (pp. 35-48). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Gough, P.B., Juel, C., and Roper-Schneider, D. (1983). A two-stage model of initial Reading acquisition. In J.A. Niles and L.A. Harris (Eds.), Searches for meaning In reading/language processing and instruction (pp. 207-211). Rochester NY: National Reading Conference.

Graesser, A.C. (1981). Prose comprehension beyond the word. New York: SpringerVerlag.

Graesser, A.C., Hoffman, N.L., & Clark, L.F. (1980). Structural components of reading time. Joual of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 19, 135-151.

Graves, M.F. (1986). Vocabulary learning and instruction. In E.Z. Rothkopf (Ed.), Review of Research in Education, 13, 49-89.

Graves, M.F. and Palmer, R.J. (1981). Validating previewing as a method of improving fifth and sixth grade students' comprehension on short stories. Michigan Reading Journal, 15, 1-3.

Graves, M.F., Cooke, C.L., Laberge, M.J. (1983). Effects of previewing difficult short stories on low ability junior high school students' comprehension, recall, and attitudes. Reading Research Quarterly, 18(3), 262-276.

Griffith, P.L. (1991). Phonemic awareness helps first graders invent spellings and third graders remember correct spellings. Journal of Reading Behavior, 23, 215-233.

Guttentag, R. (1984). Semantic memory organization in second graders and adults. Journal of General Psychology, 110, 81-86.

Guttentag, R. & Haith, M. (1978). Automatic processing as a function of age and reading ability. Child Development, 49, 707-716.

Guttentag, R. & Haith, M. (1980). A longitudinal study of word processing by first grade children. Journal of Educational Psychology, 72, 701-705.

Harste, J.C., Burke, C.L., and Woodward, V.A. (1982). Children's language and world: Initial encounters with print. In J.A. Langer and M.T. Smith-Burke (Eds.), Reader meets author: Bridging the gap (pp. 105-131). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

Hatcher, P.J., Hulme, C., and Ellis, A.W. (1994). Ameliorating early reading failure by Integrating the teaching of reading and phonological skills: The phonological Linkage hypothesis. Child Development, 65, 41-57.

Hayes, D.P. and Ahrens, M.G. (1988). Vocabulary simplification for children: A Special case of "motherese"? Journal of Child Language, 15(2), 395-410.

Hiebert, E.H. (1988). The role of literacy experiences in early childhood programs. The Elementary School Journal, 89(2), 161-171.

Hohn, W. E. and Ehri, L.C. (1983). Do alphabetic letters help prereaders acquire Phonemic segmentation skill? Journal of Educational Psychology, 75, 752-762.

Holligan, C. and Johnston, R.S. (1988). The use of phonological information by Good and poor readers in memory and reading tasks. Memory and Cognition, 16(6), 522-532.

Holligan, C. and Johnston, R.S. (1991). Spelling errors and phonemic segmentation Ability: The nature of the relationship. Journal of Research and Reading, 14, 21-32.

Hoover, W.A. and Gough, P.B. (1990). The simple view of reading. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 2, 127-160.

Iverson, S., and Tunmer, W.E. (1993). Phonological processing skills and the Reading Recovery Program. Journal of Educational Psychology, 85(1), 112-126.

Jenkins, J., Stein, M., & Wysocki, K. (1984). Learning vocabulary through reading. American Educational Research Journal, 21, 767-787.

Johnston R.S. and Watson J. (1998). The role of letter knowledge in developing reading, spelling and phonemic awareness skills in 5 year olds. Paper presented to the Society for Scientific Research in Reading, San Diego April 1998

Johnston, R.S., Anderson, M. and Holligan, C. (1996). Knowledge of the alphabet and explicit awareness of phonemes in prereaders: The nature of the relationship. Reading and Writing: An interdisciplinary Journal, 8, 217-234.

Jorm, A.F., Share, D.L., MacLean, R. and Matthews, R. (1984). Phonological recoding skills and learning to read: A longidudinal study. Applied Psycholinguistics, 5, 201-207.

Joshi, R.M., Williams, K.A. and Wood, J.R. (1998) Predicting reading comprehension from listening comprehension: Is this the answer to the IQ debate? In C. Hulme and R.M. Joshi (Eds.), Reading and spelling: Development and disorders. (pp. 319-327). Mahwah, NJ, USA: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Juel, C. (1988). Learning to read and write: A longitudinal study of 54 children fromfirst through fourth grades. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80(4), 437-447.

Juel, C. (1994). Learning to read and write in one elementary school. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Juel, C. (1998). What kind of one-on-one tutoring helps a poor reader? In C. Hulme and R.M. Joshi (Eds.), Reading and spelling: Development and disorders. (pp. 449-471). Mahwah, NJ, USA: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Juel, C., and Griffith, P.L., and Gough, P,B. (1986). Acquisition of literacy: Alongitudinal study of children in first and second grade. Journal of Educational Psychology, 78(4), 243-255.

Juel, C. and Roper-Schneider, D. (1985). The influence of basal readers on first grade reading. Reading Research Quarterly, 20, 134-152.

Juel, C., Griffith, P.L., and Gough, P.B. (1985). Reading and spelling strategies of First grade children. In J.A. Niles and R. Lalik (Eds.), Issues in literacy: A Research perspective (pp. 306-309). Rochester, NY: National Reading Conference.

Just, M.A. & Carpenter, P.A. (1980). A theory of reading: From eye fixations to comprehension. Psychological Review, 4, 329-354.

Kean, M.H., Summers, A.A., Raivetz, M.J., and Farber, I.J. (1979). What works in Reading? Summary and results of a joint school district/federal Reserve Bank Empirical study in Philadelphia. Philadelphia: Office of Research and Evaluation. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service ED 176 216).

Kennedy, D.K. (1971). Training with the cloze procedure visually and auditorily to improve the reading and listening comprehension of third gradeunderachieving readers. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Pennsylvania StateUniversity, University Park.

Kibby, M. W (1979) Passage readability affects the oral reading strategies of disabled readers. The Reading Teacher, 32, 390-6.

Kim, Y. H., & Goetz, E.T. (1994). Context effects on word recognition and reading comprehension of poor and good readers: A test of the interactive compensatory hypothesis. Reading Research Quarterly, 29, 178-188.

Kintsch, W. (1974). The representation of meaning in memory. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Kintsch, W., and Kozminsky, E. (1977). Summarizing stories after reading andlistening. Journal of Educational Psychology, 69, 491-499.

Kintsch, W., & Keenan, J.M. (1973). Reading rate and retention as a function of the number of propositions in the base structure of sentences. Cognitive Psychology, 5, 257-279.

Kintsch, W., Kozminsky, E., Streby, W.J., McKoon, G., & Keenan, J.M. (1975). Comprehension and recall as a function of content variables. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 14, 196-214.

Kraut, A.G. & Smothergill, D.W. (1980). New method for studying semantic encoding in children. Developmental Psychology, 16, 149-150.

LaBerge, D., & Samuels, S.J. (1974). Toward a theory of automatic information processing in reading. Cognitive Psychology, 6, 293-323.

Ladd, E. M. (1970). More than scores from tests. The Reading Teacher, 24, 305-311.

Langenberg, D. N. (Ed.) (2000). Report of the National Reading Panel: Teaching children to read. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

Leinhardt, G. (1989). Math lessons: A contrast of novice and expert competence. Journal for Research in Mathmatics Education, 20 (1), 52-75.

Lennox, C. and Siegel L.S. (1998) Phonological and orthographic processes in good and poor spellers. In C. Hulme and R.M. Joshi (Eds.), Reading and spelling: Development and disorders. (pp. 395-404). Mahwah, NJ, USA: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Leu, D. (1982) Oral reading error analysis: a critical review of research and application. Reading Research Quarterly, 17, 420-37.

Liberman, A. M. (1992). The relation of speech to reading and writing. In R. Frost and L. Katz (eds), Orthography, Phonology, Morphology, and Meaning. Amsterdam: North-Holland, pp. 167-78.

Liberman, I. and Liberman, A. (1990). Whole language vs. code emphasis: Underlying Assumptions and their implications for reading instruction. Annals of Dyslexia, 40, 51-76.

Liberman, I.Y., Shankweiler, D., Fischer, F.W. and Carter, B. (1974). Explicit syllable and phoneme segmentation in young children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 18, 201-212.

Lie, A. (1991). Effects of a training program for stimulating skills in word analysis in first-grade children. Reading Research Quarterly, 26, 234-50.

Lomax, R.G., and McGee, L.M. (1987). Young children's concepts about print and Reading: Toward a model of word reading acquisition. Reading Research Quarterly, 22, 237-256.

Lundberg, I. (1987). Are letters necessary for the development of phonemic awareness? Cahiers de Psychologie Cognitive. Vol 7(5), 472-475.

Lundberg, I., Frost, J., and Petersen, O-P. (1988). Effects of an extensive program For stimulating phonological awareness in preschool children. Reading Research Quarterly, 23, 264-284.

Lundberg, I., Olofsson, A., and Wall, S. (1980). Reading and spelling skills in the first School years predicted from phonemic awareness skills in kindergarten. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 21, 159-173.

Maclean, M., Bryant, P. and Bradley, L. (1987). Rhymes, nursery rhymes, and reading in early childhood. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 33, 255-282.

Mann, V. (1984). Reading skill and language skill. Developmental Review, 4, 1-15.

Mann, V. (1986). Phonological awareness: The role of reading experience. Cognition, 24, 65-92.

Mann, V.A. and Liberman, I.Y. (1984). Phonological awareness and short-term memory. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 17, 592-599.

Mann, V.A., Tobin, P., and Wilson, R. (1987). Measuring phonological awareness Through the invented spellings of kindergarten children. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 33, 365-391.

Marr, M.B., and Gormley, K. (1982). Children's recall of familiar and unfamiliar text. Reading Research Quarterly, 18, 89-104.

Mason, J. (1980). When do children begin to read: An exploration of four year old Children's letter and word reading competencies. Reading Research Quarterly, 15, 203-227.

Mason, J. (1992). Reading stories to preliterate children: A proposed connection to reading. In P. Gough, L. Ehri, and R. Treiman (Eds.), Reading acquisition (pp. 215-243). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Mason, J. and Allen, J.B. (1986). A review of emergent literacy with implications for Research and practice in reading. Review of Research in Education, 13, 3-47.

Masonheimer, P.E., Drum, P.A., and Ehri, L.C. (1984). Does environmental print identification lead children into word reading? Journal of Reading Behavior,16, 257-271.

McConkie, G.W. & Zola, D. (1981). Language constraints and the functional stimulus in reading. In A.M. Lesgold and C.A. Perfetti (Eds.), Interactive processes in reading (pp. 155-157). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

McConkie, G.W., Zola, D., Blanchard, H.E., & Wolverton, G.S. (1982). Perceiving words during reading: Lack of facilitation from prior peripheral exposure. Perception and Psychophysics, 32, 271-281.

Miller, G.A. and Gildea, P.M. (1987). How children learn words. Scientific American. Vol 257(3), 94-99.

Moats, L.C. (1994). The missing foundation in teacher education: Knowledge of the Structure of spoken and written language. Annuals of Dyslexia, 44, 81-101.

Morais, J., Mousty, P. and Kolinsky, R. (1998). Why and how phoneme awareness helps learning to read. In C. Hulme and R.M. Joshi (Eds.), Reading and spelling: Development and disorders. (pp. 127-152). Mahwah, NJ, USA: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Moustafa, M. (1995). Children's productive phonological recoding. Reading Research Quarterly, 30, 464-477.

Muter, V., Hulme, C., Snowling, M., & Taylor, S. (1997). Segmentation, not rhyming, predicts early progress in leaming to read. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 35, 293-310.

Nagy, W.E. and Anderson, R.C. (1984). How many words are there in printed English? Reading Research Quarterly, 19, 304-330.

Nagy, W.E. and Herman, P.A. (1987). Breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge: Implications for acquisition and instruction. In M. McKeown and M. Curtis (Eds.), The Nature of Vocabulary Acquisition, (pp. 19-35). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum Associates.

Nagy, W.E., Herman, P., and Anderson, R. (1985). Learning words from context. Reading Research Quarterly, 19, 304-330.

Naslund, J.C., & Schneider, W. (1996). Kindergarten letter knowledge, phonological skills, and memory processes: Relative effects on early literacy. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 62, 30-59.

Nicholson, T. (1991). Do children read words better in context or in lists? A classic Study revisited. Journal of Educational Psychology, 83, 444-450.

Nicholson, T., Bailey, J., & McArthur, J. (1991). Context cues in reading: The gap between research and popular opinion. Jon at of Reading, Writiitg and Learning Disabilities, 7, 33-41.

Nicholson, T., Lillas, C., & Rzoska, A. (1988). Have we been misled by miscues? Reading Teacher, 42, 6-10.

Oaken, R., Wiener, M., and Cromer, W. (1971). Identification, organization, and Reading comprehension in poor readers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 62,71-78.

Oakhill, J., Cain, K., and Yuill, N. (1998). Individual differences in children's comprehension skill: Toward an integrated model In C. Hulme and R.M. Joshi (Eds.), Reading and spelling: Development and disorders. (pp. 343- 367). Mahwah, NJ, USA: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Oakhill, J.V. (1982). Constructive processes in skilled and less-skilled comprehender's Memory for sentences. British Journal of Psychology, 73, 13-20.

Oakhill, J. V. and Garnham, A. (1988). Becomming a skilled reader. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

Oakhill, J.V., Yuill, N.M., and Parkin, A.J. (1986). On the nature of the difference Between skilled and less-skilled comprehenders. Journal of Research in Reading, 9, 80-91.

Olofsson, A. (1993). The relevance of phonological awareness in learning to read: Scandinavian longitudinal and quasi-experimental studies. In R. M. Joshi and C. K. Leong (eds), Reading Disabilities: Diagnosis and Component Processes, Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic, pp. 185-98.

Olofsson, A. and Lundberg, I. (1985). Evaluation of long term effects of phonemic Awareness training in kindergarten: Illustrations of some methodological Problems in evaluation research. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 26, 21-34.

Olson, R.K., Wise, B., Conners, F., Rack, J., and Fuller D. (1989). Specific deficits In component reading and language skills: Genetic and environmental influences. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 22(6), 339-348.

Olson, R., Wise, B., Conners, F., and Rack, J. (1990). Organization, heritability, and Remediation of component word recognition and language skills in disabled Readers. In T.H. Carr and B.A. Levy (Eds.), Reading and its development: Component skills approaches (pp. 261-322). San Diego, CA: Academic.

Palmer, J., MacLeod, C.M., Hunt, E., Davidson, J.E. (1985). Information Processing Correlates of reading. Journal of Memory and Language, 24a, 59-88.

Patterson, K. E., & Coltheart, V. (1987). Phonological processes in reading: A tutorial review. In M. Coltheart (Ed.), Attention and performance XII: The psychology of reading. London: Erlbaum.

Paul, P.V. and O'Rourke, J.P. (1988). Multimeaning words and reading comprehension: Implications for special education students. Remedial and Special Education, 9(3), 42-52.

Pearson, P.D., Hansen, J., and Gordon, C. (1979). The effects of background Knowledge on young children's comprehension of explicit and implicit Information. Journal of Reading Behavior, 11, 201-209.

Perfetti, C.A. (1984). Reading acquisition and beyond: Decoding includes cognition. American Journal of Education, 92, 40-60.

Perfetti, C.A. (1985). Reading Ability. New York: Oxford University Press.

Perfetti, C. A. (1991) The psychology, pedagogy, and politics of reading. Psychological Science, 2, 70-6.

Perfetti, C. A., and Roth, S. (1981) Some of the interactive processes in reading and their role in reading skill. In A. Lesgold and C. Perfetti (eds), Interactive Processes in Reading, Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum Associates, pp. 269-97.

Perfetti, C.A., Bell, L.C., & Delaney, S.M. (1988). Automatical (prelexical) phonetic activation in silent word reading: Evidence from backward masking. Joumal of Memoiy and Language, 27, 1-22.

Perfetti, C.A., Goldman, S.R., and Hogaboam, T.W. (1979). Reading skill and the Identification of words in discourse content. Memory and Cognition, 2, 273-282.

Pflaum, S., Walberg, H. J., Karegianes, M., and Rasher, S. (1980). Reading instruction: A quantitative analysis. Educational Researcher, 9, 12-18.

Pikulski, J.J. and Tobin, A.W. (1989). Factors associated with long-term reading achievement of early readers. In S. McCormick, J. Zutell, P. Scharer and P. O'Keefe (Eds.), Cognitive and social perspectives for literacy research and instruction. Chicago, National Reading Conference.

Pring, L. & Snowling, M. (1986). Developmental changes in word recognition: An information-processing account. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 38A, 395-418.

Rack, J., Hulme, C., Snowling, M., and Wightman, J. (1994). The role of phonology in Young children learning to read words: The direct-mapping hypothesis. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 57, 42-71.

Rayner, K. and Pollatsek, A. (1989). The Psychology of Reading. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Rayner, K., Inhoff, A.W., Morrison, R.E., Slowiaczek, M.L., & Bertera, J.H. (1981). Masking of foveal and parafoveal vision during eye fixations in reading. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 7, 167-179.

Read, C., Zhang, Y., Nie, H., & Ding, B. (1986). The ability to manipulate speech sounds depends on knowing alphabetic spelling. Cognition, 24, 31-44.

Richardson, E., DiBenedetto, B. and Adler, A. (1982). Use of the decoding skills test to study differences between good and poor readers. Advances in Learning & Behavioral Disabilities, 1, 25-74.

Rieben, L. and Perfetti, C.A. (1991). Learning to read: Basic research and its implications. Hillsdale, NJ, USA: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Rohl, M. and Tunmer, W.E. (1988). Phonemic segmentation skill and spelling Acquisition. Applied Psycholinguistics, 9, 335-350.

Rosenshine, B.V. (1980). Skill hierarchies in reading comprehension. In. R.J. Spiro, B.C. Bruce, and W.F. Brewer (Eds.), Theoretical issues in reading comprehension (pp. 535-559). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Rosinski, R. (1977). Picture-word interference is semantically based. Child Development, 48, 643-647.

Samuels, S.J. (1970). Effects of pictures on learning to read, comprehension, and attitudes. Review of Educational Research, 40, 397-407.

Samuels, S.J., Schermer, N., and Reinking, D. (1992). Reading fluency: Techniques for Making decoding automatic. In S.J. Samuels and A.E. Farstrup (Eds.), What Research has to say about reading instruction. Newark, DE: IRA.

Satz, P., Taylor, H.G., Friel, J., & Fletcher, J.M. (1978). Some developmental and predictive precursors of reading disabilities: A six-year followup. In A. L. Benton & D. Pearl (Eds.), Dyslexia: An appraisal of current knowledge. New York: Oxford University Press.

Scarborough, H.S. (1989). Prediction of reading dysfunction from familial and individual differences. Journal of Educational Psychology, 81, 101-108.

Schonhaut, S., & Satz, P. (1983). Prognosis for children with learning disabilities: A review of follow-up studies. In M. Rutter (Ed.), Developmental Neuropsychiatry (pp. 542-563). New York: Guilford Press.

Schwantes, F. M. (1981). Locus of the context effect in children's word recognition. Child Development, 52, 895-903.

Schwantes, F.M. (1991). Children's use of semantic and syntactic information for word recognition and determination of sentence meaningfulness. Journal of Reading Behavior, 23(3), 335-350.

Scott, J.A. and Ehri, L.C. (1989). Sight word reading in prereaders: Use of logographic Vs. alphabetic access routes. Journal of Reading Behavior, 22, 149-166.

Seymour, P. H. K., and Elder, L. (1986) Beginning reading without phonology. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 3, 1-36.

Share, D.L. (1995). Phonological recoding and self-teaching: Sine qua non of reading Acquisition. Cognition, 55, 151-218.

Share, D.L., Jorm, A.F., Maclean, R., and Matthews, R. (1984). Sources of Individual differences in reading acquisition. Journal of Educational Psychology, 76(6), 1309-1324.

Shaywitz, S. E. (1996). Dyslexia. Scientific American, 275(5), 98-104.

Simner, M. L. (1995). Reply to the Ministries' reactions to the Canadian Psychological Association's position paper on beginning reading instruction. Canadian Psychology, 36, 333-342.

Simpson, G.B. & Foster, M.R. (1986). Lexical ambiguity and children's word recognition. Developmental Psychology, 22, 147-54

Simpson, G.B., Lorsbach, T., & Whitehouse, D. (1983). Encoding and contextual components of word recognition in good and poor readers. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 35, 161-71.

Singh, N.N., Deitz, D.E.D., and Singh, J. (1992). Behavioural approaches. In Nirbay N. Singh, & Ivan L. Beale (Eds.), Learning disabilities: Nature, theory, and treatment. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Snow, C.E., Barnes, W.S., Chandler, J., Hemphill, L. and Goodman, I.F. (1991). Unfulfilled expectations: Home and school influences on literacy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Snow, C. E., Burns, S. M., & Griffin, P. (Eds.). (1998). Preventing reading difficulties in young children. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Snowling, M.J. (1981). Phonemic deficits in developmental dyslexia. Psychological Research, 43, 219-234.

Snowling, M.J. (1987). Dyslexia: A Cognitive developmental perspective. Oxford, England: Basil Blackwell

Soderbergh, R. (1977). Reading in early childhood: A linguistic study of a preschool Child's gradual acquisition of reading ability. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.

Spector, J. (1995). Phonemic awareness training: Application of principles of direct Instruction. Reading and Writing Quarterly, 11, 37-51.

Spilich, G.J., Vesonder, G.T., Chiesi, H.L., and Voss, J.F. (1979). Text processing Of domain-related information for individuals with high and low domain Knowledge. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 18, 275-290.

Spreen, 0. (1978). Prediction of school achievement from kindergarten to grade five: Review and report of a follow-up study. Research Monograph No. 33. Victoria, BC, Canada: Department of Psychology, University of Victoria.

Spreen, 0. (1988). Learning disabled children growing up: A follow-up into adulthood. New York: Oxford University Press.

Spring, C. and French, L. (1990). Identifying children with specific reading disabilitiesfrom listening and reading discrepancy scores. Journal of Learning Disabilities,23, 53-58.

Stahl, S.A. and Murray, B.A. (1994). Defining phonological awareness and its relationship to early reading. Journal of Educational Psychology, 86, 221-234.

Stahl, S.A. and Murray, B.A. (1998). Issues involved in defining phonological Awareness and its relation to early reading. In J. Metsala and L.C. Ehri (Eds.), Word recognition in beginning literacy (pp. 65-87). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Stanovich, K.E. (1980). Toward an interactive-compensatory model of individual differences in the development of reading fluency. Reading Research Quarterly, 16, 32-71

Stanovich, K.E. (1981). Relationships between word decoding speed, general name-retrieval ability, and reading progress in first-grade children. Journal of Educational Psychology, 73(6), 809-815.

Stanovich, K.E. (1986). Matthew Effects in Reading: Some consequences of individual Differences in the acquisition of literacy. Reading Research Quarterly, 21, 360- 407.

Stanovich, K.E. (1988). Explaining the differences between the dyslexic and the Garden-variety poor reader: The phonological-core variable difference modes. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 21, 590-612.

Stanovich, K.E. (1992). Speculations on the causes and consequences of individual Differences in early reading acquisition. In P. Gough, L. Ehri, and R. Treiman (Eds.), Reading acquisition (pp. 307-342). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Stanovich, K.E., and West, R.F. (1989). Exposure to print and orthographic processing. Reading Research Quarterly, 24, 402-433.

Stanovich, K.E., Cunningham, A.E., and Cramer, B.B. (1984). Assessing phonological Awareness in kindergarten children: Issues of task comparability. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 38(2), 175-190.

Stanovich, K.E., Cunningham, A.E., and Freeman, D.J. (1984). Intelligence, cognitive skills and early reading progress. Reading Research Quarterly, 19, 278-303.

Stanovich, K.E., West, R.F., & Freeman, D.J. (1981). A longitudinal study of sentence context effects in second-grade children: Tests of an interactive compensatory model. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 32, 185-199.

Steiner, R., Wiener, M., and Cromer, W. (1971). Comprehension training and Identification for good and poor readers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 62, 506-513.

Sternberg, R.J. (1985). Beyond I.Q.: A triarchic theory of human intelligence. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Sternberg, R.J. & Powell, J. (1983). Comprehending verbal comprehension. American Psychologist, 38, 878-893.

Sternberg, R.J. & Powell, J. & Kaye, D. (1982). The nature of verbal comprehension. Poetics, 11, 155-187.

Stevenson, H., Parker, T., Wilkinson, A., Hegion, A., & Fish, E. (1976). Longitudinal study of individual differences in cognitive development and scholastic achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 68, 377-400.

Stevenson, H.W. and Newman, R.S. (1986). Long-term prediction of achievement and attitudes in mathematics and reading. Child Development, 57, 646-659.

Stuart, M., and Coltheart, M. (1988). Does reading develop in a sequence of stages? Cognition, 30, 139-181.

Stuart, M., & Masterson, J. (1992). Patterns of reading and spelling in 10-year-old children related to prereading phonological abilities. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 54, 168-187.

Sulzby, E. and Teale, W.H. (1991). Emergent literacy. In R. Barr, M.L. Kamil, P. Mosenthal, and P.D. Pearson (Eds.), Handbook of Reading Research (pp. 727- 757). New York: Longman.

Tangel, D.M. and Blachman, B.A. (1992). Effect of phoneme awareness instruction On kindergarten children's invented spellings. Journal of Reading Behavior, 24, 233-262.

Torgesen, J. K., & Wagner, R. K. (1998). Alternative diagnostic approaches for specific developmental reading disabilities. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 13, 220-232.

Torgesen, J. K., Wagner, R. K., & Rashotte, C.A. (1994). Longitudinal studies of phonological processing and reading. Journal of learning Disabilities, 27, 276-286.

Torneus, M. (1984). Phonological awareness and reading: A chicken and egg problem? Journal of Educational Psychology. 76(6), 1346-1358.

Townsend, D.J., Carrithers, C., and Bever, T.G. (1987). Listening and reading processes in college- and middle-school age readers. In R. Horowitz and S.J. Samuels (Eds.), Comprehending oral and written language (pp. 217-242. New York: Academic.

Trabasso, T. (1981). Can we integrate research and instruction on reading Comprehension? In C.M. Santa and B.L. Hayes (Eds.), Children's prosecomprehension (pp. 30-45). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

Treiman, R. (1985). Onsets and rimes as units of spoken syllables: Evidence from Children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 39, 161-181.

Treiman, R. (1986). The division between onsets and rimes in English syllables. Journal Of Memory and Language, 25, 476-491.

Treiman, R. (1992). The role of intrasyllabic units in learning to read and spell. In P. Gough, L.C. Ehri, and R. Treiman (Eds.), Reading acquisition (pp. 65-106). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Treiman, R. and Baron, J. (1983). Phonemic-analysis training helps children benefit from spelling-sound rules. Memory & Cognition. 11(4), 382-389.

Tunmer, W. and Hoover, W. (1993). Components of variance models of language-related factors in reading disability: A conceptual overview. In R.J. Joshi and C.K. Leong (Eds.), Reading disabilities: Diagnosis and component processes (pp. 135-173). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer.

Tunmer, W.E and Hoover, W.A. (1992). Cognitive and linguistic factors in learning to read. In P.B. Gough, L.C. Ehri and R. Treiman (Eds.), Reading Acquisition. Hillsdale, NJ: Earlbaum.

Tunmer, W.E. and Nesdale A.R. (1985). Phonemic segmentation skill and beginning Reading. Journal of Educational Society, 77, 417-527.

Tunmer, W.E., Herriman, M.L. and Nesdale, A.R. (1988). Metalinguistic abilities and beginning reading. Reading Research Quarterly, 23, 134-158.

Tunmer, W.E., Nesdale, A.R. and Wright, A.D. (1987). Syntactic awareness and reading acquisition. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 5, 25-34.

Van Kleeck, A. (1990). Emergent literacy: Learning about print before learning to read. Topics in Language Disorders, 10(2), 25-45.

Vellutino, E R. (1991) Introduction to three studies on reading acquisition: Convergent findings on theoretical foundations of code-oriented versus whole-language approaches to reading instruction. Journal of Educational Psychology, 83, 437-43.

Vellutino, F.R., and Scanlon, D.M. (1987). Phonological coding, phonological Awareness and reading ability: Evidence from a longitudinal and experimental Study. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 33, 321-363.

Vellutino, F.R. and Scanlon, D.M. (1991). The effects of instructional bias on word identification. In L. Rieben and C.A. Perfetti (Eds.), Learning to read: Basic research and its implications. (pp. 189-203). Hillsdale, NJ, USA: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Vellutino, F.R., Scanlon, D.M., and Tanzman, M.S. (1994) Components of reading ability: Issues and problems in operationalizing word identification, phonological coding, and orthographic coding. In G.R. Lyon (Ed.), Frames of reference for the assessment of learning disabilities: New views on measurement issues. (pp. 279-332). Baltimore, MD, USA: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.

Wagner, R.K., and Torgeson, J.K. (1987). The nature of phonological awareness and its Causal role in the acquisition of reading skills. Psychological Bulletin, 101, 192- 212.

Wagner, R.K., Torgeson, J.K. and Rashotte, C.A. (1994). Development of reading-related phonological processing abilities: New evidence of bidirectional causality from a latent variable longitudinal study. Developmental Psychology, 30, 73-87.

Waterman, B., & Lewandowski, L. (1993). Phonologic and semantic process in reading-disabled and nondisabled males at two age levels. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 55, 87-103.

Weir, B. (1989). A research base for pre kindergarten literacy programs. The Reading Teacher, 42 (7), 456-460.

Weir, R. (1990). Philosophy, cultural beliefs and literacy. Interchange, 21 (4), 24-33.

West, R.F., & Stanovich, K.E. (1978). Automatic contextual facilitation in readers of three ages. Child Development, 49, 717-727.

Westerman, D.A. (1991). Expert and novice teacher decision making. Journal of Teacher Education, 42 (4), 292-305.

White, T. G., Graves, M. F., and Slater, W. H. (1990). Growth of reading vocabulary in diverse elementary schools: Decoding and word meaning. Journal of Educational Psychology , 82 (2), 281-290.

Whitehurst, G.J. (1996). A structural equation model of the role of home literacy environment in the development of emergent literacy skills in children from low-income backgrounds. Paper presented at the annual convention of the American Educational Research Association, New York.

Williams, J. (1984). Phonemic analysis and how it relates to reading. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 17, 240-5.

Williams, J.P. (1980). Teaching decoding with an emphasis on phoneme analysis and phoneme blending. Journal fo Educational Psychology, 72, 1-15.

Williams, J.P. (1985). The case for explicit decoding instruction. In J. Osborn, P.T. Wilson, & R.C. Anderson (Eds.), Reading education: Foundations of a literate America (205-231). Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.

Wise, B.W., & Olson, R.K. (1995). Computer-based phonological awareness and reading instruction. Anals of Dyslexia, 45, 99-122.

Wixson, K. L. (1979) Miscue analysis: A critical review. Journal of Reading Bebavior, 11, 163-75.

Wood, T.A., Buckhalt, J.A., and Tomlin, J.G. (1988). A comparison of listening and reading performance with children in three educational placements. Journal ofLearning Disabilities. 8, 493-496.

Zola, D. (1984). Redundancy and word perception during reading. Perception and Psychophysics, 36, 277-284.

Zutell, J. and Rasinski, T. (1989). Reading and spelling connections in third and fifth Grade students. Reading Psychology, 10, 137-155.

Archived Resource

The resources listed on this website are from a past project. The Reading Assessment Database and external links have not been updated since 2009.

Copyright ©2015 SEDL
About SEDL | Contact SEDL | Terms of Use