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Cognitive Framework of Reading Reading Assessment Database Short Papers Reading First Links
Table of Contents


14 Cognitive Elements of Reading
1. Reading Comp.
- 2. Language Comp.
- 3. Background
- 4. Linguistic
- 5. Phonology
- 6. Syntax
- 7. Semantics
- 8. Decoding
- 9. Cipher
- 10. Lexical
- 11. Phoneme
- 12. Alphabetic
- 13. Letter
- 14. Concepts

Reading Assessment Techniques

Research Evidence

Using the Framework


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Related Resources
Glossary of reading terms

Instructional Resources - Literary References

Instructional Resources - Instructional Activities

Reading Comprehension

Visual Map of the Cognitive Elements of Reading Reading comprehension is composed of two equally important components. Decoding, or the ability to translate text into speech, is only part of the process of reading comprehension. The other part is language comprehension, or the ability to understand spoken language. All struggling readers have difficulty with either language comprehension or decoding or both.

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